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Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

the last period of time ten new (after a form or on maintenance) affixes began to function, to the center of the lexical or word building system ten morphemes, which were to it on periphery, that were limited in functioning, relocated yet, was finally designed yet: certain amount of word building elements which arose up in a previous period of development of English.
The analysis of neologisms of English testifies that high word building activity of affixation (with the help of suffixes and prefixes are built more 30 % lexical innovation) is determined not only by participation of traditional word building elements but also all by the greater role of new affixes. Words of full meaning (both the German origin and adopted from other languages), and also parts of words, can serve as primary material for creation of affixes.
It is necessary to mark that creation of new words by analogy, that according to the sample concrete existent word, is the most widespread way of forming of new affixes.
The processes of origin and registration of new derivational facilities expose intercommunications between the morpheme and lexical levels of language and proper units of these levels. Rather spread in English it is possible to suppose the phenomenon of "bifunctionality" (functional homonymy) units which execute at the same time the role of lexemes and the role of affixes, thus such bifunctionality inherent not only to the word building elements which arose up on the base of lexical units, but also on the base of pseudomorphemes, fragments of words.
Phenomenon of bifunctionality, interlevel correlation, the presence of intermediate linguistic elements (semiaffixes) testifies about the absence of clear border between morpheme and lexical levels, about "diffusion" units of these levels. Bilateral communication between lexical and word building innovation consists in that neologisms create condition for forming of new derivational elements which, in their turn, are used for subsequent lexical innovations etc.
The general tendency of word building development is traced in direction of expansion of realization of its potential due to much more freedom, expansion the limits of normativeness in the conditions of cross-purpose of action of the factors related to intervariant and intravariant migration of vocabulary. The role of complex methods of creation of innovations is growing, inclusion of a few nominative-derivational mechanisms that, from one side, show the certain system of word building, and from other side, is the evidence of complication of onomasiological processes in connection with complication of our knowledge and notions about the surrounding world.
Semantic innovations is related to those modifications of content of existent units which arise up as a result of their functional dictionary composition
Distributing of innovations after sociofunctional classes enables to light up a problem "language and its environment", to set the role of the concrete social factors which most influence on innovative processes, to expose the sociofunctional marking centers of forming of new word building elements and lexico-semantical paradigms. In the spheres of social life, which are the spheres of radical changes, actively there are the processes of update and enrichment of dictionary composition, the certaintendency of the development of lexico-semantical system of English are engendered.
A new vocabulary which is correlated with economic life makes most sociofunctional group of innovation of the last decades (in a previous period other spheres of social life went out on the first plan). Neologisms of economy sphere and business represent the radical changes which are connected with the circulation and realization of economic theories, with transition of many countries to the market economy, with the improvement of management by an economy and its separate links, with introduction of modern informative technique.
Round concepts which are correlated with these processes and phenomena, there is most concentration of a new vocabulary and phraseology. The role of economic sphere in the supply of innovation in a language becomes more noticeable, in enrichment of phraseology fund. It testifies about growth of influence of factors, connected with economic basis of society.
Neologisms of social and political sphere show two sides of the civilized progress of humanity - integrational and differential processes, political and public motions, testify about growth of influence on the innovative processes of such factors, as sex, age, social status, valuable orientations of transmitters of English. As a result of growth of influence of the noted factors all anymore the political pragmalinguistic parameter of "political correctness" determinates not only political but also other discussion. The necessity of the change of reference points of the civilized development entailed not only the explosion of ecological neologisms but also forming of highly productive resources of lexical and semantic derevation, lexico-sementical and phraseology paradigms.
Sharpening of the problem of criminality, terrorism, drug addictions and fight against these negative phenomena find the reflection in the considerable amount of innovations, in the origin and fixing after the ''criminal sphere" of whole row of word building elements, in creation of wide synonymous rows round the defined notions. Growths of delinquency and drug addiction rates entailed growth of scales of penetration in the "standard" language of words and combinations of words from the jargon criminal world of drug addicts.
Important role in society of mass media, predetermines that fact, that exactly "media" is the sphere of "primitive context", by the main channel of spreading of neologisms, which are the product of word building of state, political, public figures, journalists, writers, scientists.
Considerable influence on dictionary composition of the English language, on development of its lexico-semantical system corrected informative revolution. The explosion of computer neologisms causes action of mechanisms of semantic changes necessary for fixing of existent units after new reviewers. Expansion of the special vocabulary related to the informative technique in a common language is also accompanied by semantic changes and modifications. The consequences of semantic processes and changes find the embodiment in new linguistic phenomena which all anymore pierce the system, influence on existent semantic subsystems and semantic group of the vocabulary.
The whole row of lexical units is fastened on the concepts related to the modern informative technique by the all semantic structure or separate lexico-semantical variants. These units not only become keywords but also grow into the centers of word- and creation of phrases, enter as dominant elements in the ramified new lexico-semantical paradigms.
Actuality of processes and phenomena of modern stage of scientific and technical progress predetermines aspiration to remove these processes and phenomena by variation and nominative facilities, as a result