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Англійські неологізми - Дипломна робота

Дипломна робота
Англійські неологізми
Table of contents
1. Introduction_________________________________________________
2. The definition of neologism____________________________________
3. Changing culture_____________________________________________
4. Cultural acceptance___________________________________________
5. Versions of neologisms________________________________________
6. Types of neologisms__________________________________________
7. Neologisms in literature_______________________________________
8. Neologisms in psychology_____________________________________
9. Neologisms in theology_______________________________________
10. Methods of coinage neologisms________________________________
11. Word building models of coinage neologisms_____________________
12. Stylistic stratification of neologisms_____________________________
13. Semantical models of coinage of neologisms______________________
14. Description of the software product_____________________________
15. General information about NeoLog_____________________________
16. Basic features of Windows____________________________________
17. The Delphi Interface_________________________________________
18. The creation of the program in Delphi___________________________
19. Components of the NeoLog program____________________________
20. Use of databases in Delphi____________________________________
21. Tables of database of the NeoLog program_______________________
22. Combining of databases with the components of the program_________
23. Visible and invisible components_______________________________
24. Creation of procedures of studying the event______________________
25. Organization of multiwindows projects__________________________
26. Installation of the program____________________________________
27. Order of work in the NeoLog environment_______________________
28. Zusammenfassung__________________________________________
29. Summary_________________________________________________
30. Conclusion_______________________________________________
31. References_______________________________________________
A neologism is word, term, or phrase which has been recently created ("coined") - often to apply to new concepts, or to reshape older terms in newer language form. Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context.
Neologisms are by definition "new," and as such are often directly attributable to a specific individual, publication, period or event. The term "neologism" was itself coined around 1800; thus for some time in the early 19th Century, the word "neologism" was itself a neologism. It can also refer to an existing word or phrase which has been assigned a new meaning.
Changing culture
Neologisms tend to occur more often in cultures which are rapidly changing, and also in situations where there is easy and fast propagation of information. They are often created by combining existing words or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes. Those which are portmanteaus are shortened. Neologisms can also be created through abbreviation or acronym, by intentionally rhyming with existing words, or simply through playing with sounds.
Neologisms often become popular by way of mass media, the Internet, or word of mouth. Every word in a language was, at some time, a neologism, though most of these ceased to be such through time and acceptance.
Neologisms often become accepted parts of the language. Other times, however, they disappear from common usage. Whether or not a neologism continues as part of the language depends on many factors, probably the most important of which is acceptance by the public. Acceptance by linguistic experts and incorporation into dictionaries also plays a part, as does whether the phenomenon described by a neologism remains current, thus continuing to need a descriptor. It is unusual, however, for a word to enter common use if it does not resemble another word or words in an identifiable way. (In some cases however, strange new words succeed because the idea behind them is especially memorable or exciting). When a word or phrase is no longer "new," it is no longer a neologism. Neologisms may take decades to become "old," though. Opinions differ on exactly how old a word must be to no longer be considered a neologism; cultural acceptance probably plays a more important role than time in this regard.
Cultural acceptance
After being coined, neologisms invariably undergo scrutiny by the public and by linguists to determine their suitability to the language. Many are accepted very quickly; others attract opposition. Language experts sometimes object to a neologism on the grounds that a suitable term for the thing described already exists in the language. Non-experts who dislike the neologism sometimes also use this argument, deriding the neologism as "abuse and ignorance of the language."
Some neologisms, especially those dealing with sensitive subjects, are often objected to on the grounds that they obscure the issue being discussed, and that such a word's novelty often leads a discussion away from the root issue and onto a sidetrack about the meaning of the neologism itself.
Proponents of a neologism see it as being useful, and also helping the language to grow and change; often they perceive these words as being a fun and creative way to play with a language. Also, the semantic precision of most neologisms, along with what is usually a straightforward syntax, often makes them easier to grasp by people who are not native speakers of the language.
The outcome of these debates, when they occur, has a great deal of influence on whether a neologism eventually becomes an accepted part of the language. Linguists may sometimes delay acceptance, for instance by refusing to include the neologism in dictionaries; this can sometimes cause a neologism to die out over time. Nevertheless if the public continues to use the term, it always eventually sheds its status as a neologism and enters the language even over the objections of language experts.
Versions of neologisms
" Unstable - Extremely new, being proposed, or being used only by a very small subculture.
" Diffused - Having reached a significant audience, but not yet having gained acceptance.
" Stable - Having gained recognizable and probably lasting acceptance.
Types of neologism
" Scientific - words or phrases created to describe new scientific discoveries or inventions. Examples:
o black hole. (1968) A black hole is a concentration of mass great enough that the force of gravity prevents anything from escaping from it except through quantum tunneling behavior.
o laser. (1960) A LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is an optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam.
o prion. Prions - short for proteinaceous infectious particle - are infectious self-reproducing protein