On the basis of these data one can suggest that as a result of radical economic orms aimed at establishing private property and an improvement of Ukraine's economic situation, the national/ethnic tolerance of its population will increase. The worsening of the economic situation may lead to a lower selftolerance of Ukraine's population as just one form of selfrespect and confidence in its own strength and the feasibility of building its new state.
9. Main Conclusions
1. The values of indicators of national/ethnic tolerance of Ukraine's adult population towards various nationalities and ethnic groups testify to the fact that in the First stage of making a new independent nation, a striving fornational and state isolationism was an essential element of the mass consciousness. The urge for separateness manifested itself in the fact that the population's attitude was most tolerant mainly towards those ethnic groups/nationalities which, historically, lived on the territory of Ukraine. Most nationalities/ethnic groups are shifted by the mass consciousness along the scale of social distance beyond the mark of close contacts. The greatest suspiciousness and guardedness is displayed with respect to those nationalities/ethnic groups whose image is somehow associated, to a greater or lesser extent, with interethnic or international conflicts.
2. Manifestations of intolerance (nonacceptance) towards some specific nationality or ethnic group are a special case of manifestation of a more general national xenophobia (distrust and suspiciousness with respect to all 'aliens'). Theore, if someone is intolerant of one nationality or ethnic group, he/she is very likely to be intolerant to all other nationalities or ethnic groups which he/she does not consider as 'friendly'.
3. The level of general national/ethnic tolerance increased somewhat in the first two years (1992-1994) of Ukraine's independence and this may be an indication of positive, albeit slow trends in changes of mass consciousness on the way to an open democratic society.
The most noticeable dynamics of general national/ethnic tolerance were registered in the central region of Ukraine, which lects overall changes in the minds of people in this region. These changes are in line with the increase of this region's role in the general political situation in Ukraine.
4. In 1992-1994, important changes occurred in the system of relationships between Ukrainians and ethnic Russians: the population's tolerance towards Ukrainians went down (even in the western region), while it went up with respect to ethnic Russians. In our opinion, this can be explained by the disillusionment of Ukraine's population with the idea of national revival by way of isolationism (brought about by the lowering of living standards and quality of life) as well as by the strengthening of orientations towards economic ties and cooperation with Russia.
Russia's advantages in the economic sphere (as compared with Ukraine) are a major factor of changes in the system of relationships between Ukrainians and ethnic Russians. The pace of economic orms in Russia is higher than in Ukraine and hence a) the higher level of average wages in Russia b) the higher purchasing power of the Russian rouble on the territory of Ukraine. The following are, in our opinion, the main factors which can lead to a hrefigher level of national/ethnic tolerance among Ukraine's population:
a) real economic orms (above all, a definitive legislative support of private property accompanied by social protection and maintenance of the disabled and senior citizens) and, in this connection, greater socioeconomic orientations of the population towards the market economy, which are in turn closely connected with greater democratic orientations towards an open society;
b) a flexible linguistic policy in the field of official language, taking into account regional peculiarities related to predominantly used languages of communication.
The decline in living standards and quality of life are key factors which may negatively influence not only general national/ethnic tolerance but also tolerance of Ukrainians (including Ukrainians' selftolerance). A further decline in living standards (especially to the limit when even the highest official salary or wages are considerably less than the subsistence level) will inevitably lead not only to a lower confidence in power structures but also to disbelief in one's own strength and capabilities. In such a situation a reverse movement of the people towards socialist 'values': 'antimarket' orientations, 'witch hunts for enemies of the people' (who are allegedly responsible for low living standards), an increase in suspicion with respect to all 'aliens', and theore intolerance.
 Reprinted with permission from Klaus Segbers/Stephan De Spiegeleire (Eds.) PostSoviet Puzzles. Mapping the Political Economy of the Former Soviet Union (Vol. IV), pp. 101-122. ?Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, BadenBaden 1995.
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