Table 7 gives the data characterizing regional peculiarities of dynamics of attitudes towards Ukrainians and ethnic Russians .
Dynamics of the Population 's Attitudes to Ukrainians and Ethnic Russians: Regional Peculiarities
Index of intolerance of Ukrainians Index of intolerance of Russians
Regions 1992 1994 1992 1994
Kiev 1.67 1.65 2.17 2.08
the western region 1.37 1.75** 3.14 2.97
the central region 1.33 1.41 . 2.58 1.79**
the eastern region 1.58 2.03** 2.05 2.24*
the southern region 1.86 2.02 2.84 2.22**
the Crimea 2.27 2.76 1.83 2.34*
Ukraine 1.55 1.83** 2.45 2.25**
Tolerance of Ukrainians significantly decreased in theeastern and western (!) regions of Ukraine - regions most sensitive to interethnic relations between ethnic Russians and Ukrainians. The same trend is characteristic of the southern region but because of a scattering of individual assessments these changes are statistically insignificant. These changes are, in our opinion, a lection of a disillusionment with the idea of national revival by way of isolationism and a greater orientation towards partnership with Russia.
The most significant rise in tolerance of ethnic Russians occurred in the central and southern regions of Ukraine. The Crimea and the southern region showed a drop in tolerance both of Ukrainians and ethnic Russians, which lects the aggravation of the problem of RussianUkrainian relations precisely in this region. Linguistic policy (specifically, demands to institute Russian as the second official language in the country) may be a factor which contributed to the aggravation of the problem.
Ukraine has a specific linguistic situation: there are important regional differences in the number of people using this or that language in everyday communication. Table 8 shows the data illustrating regional differences in the use of languages in everyday communication. Answers to the question "What language do you use for communication in your family?" were regarded as indicators of a perred language use.
Regional peculiarities of perred language use in family communication
(May 1994; in percentage for each region)
Regions "What language do you use for communication in your family?"
Only Ukrainian Only Russian Both, depending on circumstances
Kiev 15 39 46
The western region 79 5 16
The central region 60 8 32
The eastern region ?? 53 35
The southern region 22 47 31
The Crimea 4 86 11
Ukraine 37 33 30
If on average in Ukraine the proportions of people who per to speak only Ukrainian or only Russian, as well as those who use both languages, are approximately the same, in each individual region one of the two languages is prevalent in family communication. In Kiev, almost half of its inhabitants use both languages. The central and especially western regions are mainly Ukrainianspeaking, while in the Crimea and in the eastern and southern regions Russian is obviously dominant. Theore, a hrefardline state language policy which stipulates that all official documents should be written in Ukrainian only cannot but evoke inner tension, especially in people who have a poor command of the only official language. Many people in these regions voted for Leonid Kuchma at the 1994 presidential election largely because his election program contained a promise to grant Russian the status of the second official language. Incidentally, orientation to strengthening economic ties with Russia was another important point in the program of the wouldbe president.
The greater orientation of Ukraine's population towards economic ties with Russia was brought about by improvements in Russia (as compared with Ukraine) in the two most important components of people's living standards; higher average wages and a stronger currency unit (the purchasing power of the Russian rouble is higher in Ukraine than that of the Ukrainian coupon). It is precisely this factor which in our opinion played a decisive part in the electoral behaviour of the Central Left Bank subregion of Ukraine in the 1994 presidential elections. Under the present economic conditions in Ukraine, when wages cannot provide for a subsistence level, threequarters of Ukraine's population (according to data of the sociological poll, conducted with the author's participation in February 1991 by the sociological service of the Democratic Initiatives Centre), survive solely on products grown on personal plots of land attached to their houses (50% constantly, 25% periodically). Many people in the central region, especially in Left Bank Ukraine, per to sell products from their personal plots in Russia, because, as it has been noted, the purchasing power of the Russian rouble in Ukraine is higher than that of the Ukrainian coupon.
Thus, the major reason for the rise in national tolerance of ethnic Russians lies, in our opinion, in the better economic situation in Russia as compared with Ukraine.
The data obtained also made it possible to establish a significant link between the socioeconomic attitudes of people and their level of general national/ethnic tolerance.
8. Influence of SocioEconomic Orientations of Population on National/Ethnic Tolerance
Put in its most general form, the interconnection between socioeconomic orientations and national tolerance is characterized by the following regularity: the more people are oriented towards market orms in the economy, the higher their national/ethnic tolerance level tends to be. As an example we can provide data that illustrate the interdependence between general attitude to economic orms and general national/ethnic tolerance index: those people who advocate a complete transition to a market economy have a lower index of general national/ethnic intolerance than those who would like to return to the socialist economy of the Brezhnev era of stagnation (see Table 9).
Influence of SocioEconomic Orientations on National/Ethnic Tolerance
"What is your attitude to economic transformations in Ukraine?" Index of overall national intolerance (on a scale from 1-7)
There must be a complete transition to the market economy 4.15
There must be only some individual orms 4.62
The country's economy should be brought back to the state it was in at the beginning of the perestroika 4.61
A similar trend has been revealed in the analysis of the interdependence between national tolerance and other indicators of socioeconomic orientations. For example, national/ethnic tolerance is lower among those people