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Interethnic Relations and Ethnic Tolerance in Ukraine. - Реферат

from the shackles of Communist ideology and allround suppression of dissidence.
This conclusion is confirmed by the results of a factor analysis of the data. Factorization made it possible to single out three major factors which, combined, determined 82% of the variance in assessments. The first factor (its explanatory force was 66%) may beinterpreted as the factor of 'East Slavic withdrawal', for only on the scales of assessments of Ukrainians, Russians and Belarussians were no high factor loads registered with respect to national intolerance. In other words, if someone shows intolerance towards a certain ethnic group/nationality, it is very probable that he/she will show intolerance towards most other nationalities or ethnic groups not considered by him or her as 'friendly people'. There is also another definition of the factor dominant in the minds of people, namely xenophobia.
The second and third factors are far weaker in their explanatory power (12.3% and 4.4% respectively) and characterize, in our (optimistic) opinion, a potentially positive element in the people's minds. The second factor may be termed the factor of 'general ethnic/national tolerance', since it includes high negative values for factor loads of those ethnic groups or nationalities which are rejected most of all by the mass consciousness. The structure of the third factor 'orientation towards the West' - includes only those scales with high negative loads which characterize attitudes to representatives of developed Western countries. It is precisely these two factors, as yet rather weak but still present in the minds of people, that give us some hope for better prospects of the development of the system attitudes of Ukraine's population towards representatives of other ethnic groups/nationalities.
On the one hand, the population's general cautiousness and guardedness, rather vividly manifested in the rejection of nationalities and ethnic groups whose image is in some way associated in the mass consciousness with interethnic and international conflicts, work towards the preservation of a more or less durable peace in Ukraine at a time when other regions of the former Soviet Union are plagued with murderous interethnic feuds. On the other hand, such overcautiousness is also leading to the creation and consolidation of a prospectless (from the point of view of building up an economically developed civilized nation) phenomenon of general national and ethnic intolerance, originating from a psychological isolation from practically all nationalities and ethnic groups which do not have a long historical record of living on the territory of Ukraine.
3. General Ethnic/National Intolerance
The phenomenon of xenophobia (established as a result of the correlation and factor analysis), the essence of which lies in the fact that manifestations of intolerance towards certain specific nationality or ethnic group are merely a special case of manifestation of more general ethnic/national intolerance, substantiate the expediency of using such an indicator as the general ethnic/national intolerance index. This index is a simple average of values of ethnic/national intolerance indicators. In calculating a simple average value of the index of general ethnic/national intolerance, attitudes towards ethnic Russians and Ukrainians as the major nationalities living on the territory of Ukraine, as well as attitudes towards Ukrainian expatriates, are not taken into account since they are representatives of the same nationalities as the indigenous population.
According to the data obtained, the general ethnic/national intolerance index of Ukraine's adult population in 1992 was 4.63 points on a seven points scale, where the value of 4 points is a mark dividing positive (tolerant) and negative (intolerant) attitudes to other nationalities/ethnic groups. One can see that the general national/ethnic tolerance of Ukraine's population has shifted to the negative end of the scale, for which reason it would be more exact to speak about a general national intolerance. Analyzing the factors affecting the phenomenon in question, one can maintain that a factor's influence is positive, even if it only reduces the average level of general intolerance, rather than increasing tolerance.
4. SocioDemographic Factors of General Ethnic Intolerance
Our analysis of sociodemographic factors of ethnic intolerance makes it possible to empirically verify the hypothesis that educational level, age and type of settlement substantially affect the level of ethnic tolerance: the higher the individual's educational level and the younger he/she is, the lower the level of general intolerance. Place of residence affects not only attitudes towards Jews, as was mentioned above, but also a general ethnic intolerance index (Table 2):
Table 2
Levels of ethnic intolerance of various sociodemographic groups of Ukraine's population
Index of overall national intolerance (on a scale from 1-7)
Ukraine's population as a whole 4.63
AGE
under 30 years 4.40
30-55 years 4.65
over 55 years 4.89
EDUCATION
Incomplete secondary 4.91
Complete general secondary 4.61
Specialized secondary 4.58
Higher 4.38
TYPE OF SETTLEMENT
Kiev 4.1
Large city 4.40
Small city 4.62
Village 4.86
REGION
Kiev 4.1
the West 4.31
the Center 4.87
the East 4.71
the South 4.71
the Crimea 4.63
ETHNIC GROUP
Ukrainians 4.69
Ethnic Russians 4.52
Others 4.43
According to the 1992 data, regional peculiarities are as follows: the lowest level of general ethnic/national intolerance was registered in the western region, while the highest level was in the central region, which confirms the hypothesis that a level of national/ethnic tolerance is influenced by the experience of ethnic groups/nationalities living together and cooperating with other ethnic groups/nations. Poles, Hungarians, Romanians and other ethnic groups living in Ukraine are largely concentrated on the territory of the western region, while the central region is more homogeneous in its ethnic composition. Furthermore, joint ventures and business contacts intensified in the first years of the new, marketoriented economic policy, and were more developed in Western Ukraine. There is another explanation for the lower level of general ethnic intolerance in Western Ukraine: in our opinion, the region's population was oriented to market transformations in the economy to a greater extent, and, as will be shown below, market orientations are rather closely related to a lower level of ethnic intolerance.
Certain differences in the level of ethnic intolerance were registered between
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