Level of Tolerance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Index
Ukrainians 79 9 3 1 7 2 0 1.55
Russians 43 24 10 3 11 7 2 2.46
Belarussians 29 27 14 4 13 12 1 2.85
Ukrainian expatriates 24 22 7 4 18 23 2 3.48
Poles 15 22 14 4 12 28 5 3.77
Jews 10 14 15 11 23 18 10 4.18
Hungarians 9 14 17 5 15 35 4 4.24
Americans 11 13 9 15 10 38 4 4.31
Germans 8 13 9 16 12 37 5 4.43
French 9 13 8 13 11 41 4 4.45
Romanians g 12 13 6 14 38 8 4.56
Japanese 4 11 9 19 9 43 4 4.66
Crimean Tatars 3 6 9 5 31 29 17 5.09
Georgians 3 8 9 5 16 34 26 5.26
Vietnamese 2 7 6 9 10 52 14 5.29
Arabs 3 6 5 7 11 51 17 5.37
Negroes 2 6 5 6 11 50 20 5.49
Gypsies 3 4 7 3 22 26 35 5.55
(% of all those polled; N = 1752)
The data obtained made it possible to answer one question raised as a result of previous research, i.e., why, despite a generally favourable situation in the sphere of interethnic relations, a considerable part of the population is still fearful of interethnic conflicts? If, casting a cursory glance at Table I, one makes an attempt to succinctly characterize the population's psychological status in the sphere of interethnic relations, then the word 'guarded' seems to be most appropriate. In neither ethnic group/nationality, including the indigenous one, can we observe a maximum (100%) manifestation of tolerance: only 79% of those polled chose to accept Ukrainians as family members, and less than a half of the respondents -Russians.
An analysis of the distribution of ethnic groups/nationalities on the social distance scale according to the ethnic intolerance index (see the far right column in Table 1 ) leads us to conclude that there is a certain striving for East Slavic separateness in the minds of Ukrainian people: Ukrainians, Russians, Belarussians, Poles and Ukrainian expatriates (the diaspora) have an index value of less than four points on the social distance scale, which may testify if not to a pronounced tolerance then, at least, to some positive value for it.
A number of nationalities are characterized by an intolerance index of more than five 5 points, which means, specifically, that representatives of these nationalities are not accepted in people's minds as permanent residents of Ukraine. A list of nationalities which are rejected most of all (Crimean Tatars, Georgians, Arabs, Negroes, Gypsies and the Vietnamese) may lead one to surmise that the underlying reason for such rejection is an association in people's minds of these nationalities with a threat of international or interethnic conflicts. Thus, a fear of interethnic/international clashes is, in our opinion, a result of general cautiousness as a basic character trait of Ukraine's population, rather than an indication of ethnic/national intolerance. It is probably this same guardedness that on the one hand helps avoid largescale interethnic confrontation and, on the other, facilitates the formation of a certain (as it were, 'soft') type of xenophobia, separation from all 'aliens'. That is precisely why ethnic Ukrainians abroad (Ukrainian expatriates, on whom many people in Ukraine pinned great hopes for assisting them in building up independent Ukraine's economy) occupy in the minds of people in Ukraine a more remote place than Russians or Belarussians, and have an index of more than three points, which is beyond the range of the closest (friendly, neighbourly or family) ties.
In this context (the shaping of national isolation psychology), representatives of most nationalities are accepted in people's minds only as visitors to Ukraine.
Of certain interest for an analysis of ethnic/national intolerance is the position of Jews on the scale of social distance. By virtue of historical circumstances) the problem of antiSemitism has a special if not leading place in the range of the world's problems in the field of international/interethnic relations. Historically, this issue was one of the most important interethnic problems in Ukraine. It is rather topical even nowadays, since it is closely linked with the problems of human rights protection, migration and international cooperation.
The results of international/interethnic tolerance measurements made it possible to see that problem in a somewhat different light. If previously this had been a matter of antiSemitism as such, with an emphasis on the negative attitude towards Jews alone, a comparison of attitudes to Jews with attitudes to other nationalities leads one to conclude that antiSemitism is just one particular manifestation of a more general xenophobia - rejection of practically all nationalities or ethnic groups different from one's own: Jews far from occupy a leading place. Moreover, on the scale of social distance they are placed much closer in the mass consciousness of Ukraine's population than most other nationalities/ethnic groups. When considering the data on Ukraine as a whole, Jews are placed in the group of nationalities, which are 'driven out' by the mass consciousness beyond the range of close contacts (four points). This, however, mainly occurs because of the attitudes of rural and small town dwellers, for whom Jews as well as most other nationalities are rather 'alien'. In Kiev, however, the index of intolerance to Jews is less than four points (3.44 points), in other big cities (with more than 250,000 thousand inhabitants each) it is 3.67 points, while in small towns - 4.25 points and in villages - 4.56 points (all differences are significant at least at the level of 0.05, and between the extreme groups - at the level of 0.001).
This concrete example is a vivid illustration of the conclusion that people consider as 'friendly' those nationalities or ethnic groups with whom they have lived together for a long time on this territory. This frame of mind, lecting an a priori mistrust of practically all nations/ethnic groups that have not lived for a long time on this territory, is typical of the value system of a closed traditionalistarchaic society. Widespread traditionalistcommunitarian values are an essential obstacle in the course of the democratic transformation of society.
A low level of ethnic/national tolerance, manifested with regard to certain ethnic groups/nationalities, is but one manifestation of a low level of general ethnic/national tolerance. It is primarily a matter of xenophobia which became a real fact of life in Ukrainian society during the collapse of the totalitarian system, when the 'genie' of intolerance and distrust with regard to 'aliens' and other special groups or strata as well as to other ethnic groups and nationalities broke loose