94. Omelchenko O. The Heart of a Titan. M. Amosov, I know that death causes no fear. The fear comes when intellect fades away / Translated from Ukrainian // The Day Journal - K. 2002 - #40 - http://www.day.kiev.ua/DIGEST/2002/40/issue.htm
95. Pavlov A. Fighting Contraband: Translated from Ukrainian // Politics and Times: Social and Political Journal - 2002 - #3-4 - P. 29-41
96. De Quincey Thomas Confessions of an English Opium-Eater -London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1997, 268p.
97. Shevchuk V. Blood Brothers / Translated from Ukrainian by Y. Tkach / Bayda Books - Australia: Stockland Press, 1980 - 288p.
98. Siomin S. Religious Freedom in Ukraine: International - Legal Aspect: Translated from Ukrainian // Politics and Times: Social and Political Journal - 2000 - #1-2 - P. 79-87
99. Smoli V. A Culture of Peace for the Modern World / Translated from Ukrainian by O. Savchyn // Political Thought: Ukrainian Political Science Journal - 1999 - #1-2 - P. 127-130
100. Soniuk V., Kniazhansky V. Devaluation. Majority arrangements show their first hitch / Translated from Ukrainian // The Day Journal - 2001 - #38 - http://www.day.kiev.ua/2002/38/issue.htm
101. The Forthcoming Presidential Elections in Ukraine: Political Resources and Images of the Contenders: Analytical Survey / Translated from Ukrainian by V. Karaban and S. Oleh // Political Thought: Ukrainian Political Science Journal - 1999 - #1-2 - P. 3-28
102. Trofimova N. Freedom in Exchange for Order / Translated from Ukrainian // The Day Journal - 2002 - #40 - http://day.kiev.ua/2002/40/issue.htm
103. Tsalyk S. Queen Tamar: The Golden Age of Georgia // Президент = The President: Міжнародний громадсько-політичний журнал = International Social and Political Quarterly / Translated from Ukrainian by V. Mylovzorov - 2002 - #7-8 - P. 99
104. Voitenko V. 2001+1 = Solid Minus / Translated from Ukrainian // The Day Journal - 2001 - #38 - http://www.day.kiev.ua/2001/38/issue.htm
105. Zamyatin V. New Format / Translated from Ukrainian // The Day Journal - 2002 - #37 - http://www.day.kiev.ua/2002/37/issue.htm
The master's paper focuses on the problem of nominalisation in modern English which is one of the most essential issues of modern English syntax.
The purpose of the study is to investigate nominalisation as a process in modern English and as a translational transformation in translation from Ukrainian into English.
The research is mostly based upon linguistic research concerning the problem of nominalisation and grammatical transformations in translation.
The study consists of three chapters. Chapter I describes the history of researches in the field of nominalisation in different languages. Chapter II provides a detailed analysis of the process of nominalisation in the English language. Chapter III presents the analysis of the transformation of nominalisation in Ukrainian-English direction of translation. The reasons of transformation and its main types are summarized.
Nominalisation is defined as the process of increasing the number of nominal elements (nouns, adjectives and their equivalents) as the result of decreasing the number of verbs, verbal structures and adverbs. Nominalisation splits into four major groups and their combinations. These are decomposition, unification, substitution and introduction of reference word.
Decomposition is the usage of analytical forms instead of synthetic ones. Decomposition splits into decomposition with the usage of verbal predicate and decomposition with the usage of nominal predicate.
The sample of unification is the substitution of postpositive attributes by nouns in the possessive and common cases as well as the usage of compact attributive constructions.
Substitution in this case means morphological substitutions. In this case syntactic function is changed.
The main linguistic reasons for the use of transformation of nominalisation from Ukrainian into English are defined as grammatical, word-forming, genre, stylistic and speech ones. Nominalisation being a predominantly grammatical phenomenon linguistic reasons for using transformations of nominalisation in translation are mostly based on language-systemic discrepancies between the analytical structure of the English language and the synthetic structure of Ukrainian. Transformations in Ukrainian-English direction of translation are caused by the tendencies of English as the target language to replace long and explicit verbal sentences of Ukrainian as the source language with the English compact and implicit phrases, such as noun clusters, prepositional noun phrases, English nouns and adjectives formed by suffixes with dynamic semantics.
Owing to the flexibility and diversity of the English and Ukrainian languages the Ukrainian-English transformations of nominalisation may be caused by purely genre, stylistic or speech reasons.
Transformations of nominalisation are divided into partial and full nominalisations. Partial nominalisation presupposes a partial omission of verbal elements or sememes in the target language. Full nominalization presupposes a full omission of verbal elements or sememes in the target language. Partial nominalisation may involve a deep semantic level excluding a formal syntactic level. This includes reduction of verbal structures with several verbal forms to verbal structures with one verbal form, transformation of verbs with dynamic semantics into verbs with static semantics. Partial nominalisation also includes transformations on the syntactic level, that is, transformations of finite forms of the verb into non-finite forms, notional univerbs into noun-verb phrases and compound nominal predicates.
Both partial and full nominalisation may occur either on the level of syntactic structure or on the level of a single lexico-grammatical element.
The theoretical study of Ukrainian-English translations of fiction and informational texts has shown that it is the structures with the finite forms of the verb in the source language that may signal the necessity of resorting to nominalisation in Ukrainian-English direction of translation. However, systemic differences between English and Ukrainian cause certain discrepancies in conditions of using nominalisation in Ukrainian-English direction of translation. The transformations are possible when we observe in Ukrainian source texts structures with several verb forms, notional predicate verbs, infinitival and participial elements and structures, phrases with abstract dynamic verbal nouns.