Each seme of a word can be syntagmatically realized in contexts with the help of its actualization with adjusted words. The paradigmatic inequality in rights is reflected in its syntagmatics. The more important a seme is for a word, the sooner it will be realized in context. This realization is not always performed by using a person's communicative experience.
Even if two words are not connected with each other originally, a speaker makes the syntagmatic chain in his mind to reproduce it in a similar context.
So a beginner as well as a native speaker has tocombine the semantic and the syntactic components in the structure of the meaning, based on his/her language experience.
As far as the structure of logical meaning is concerned, we should pay attention not only to how a certain language unit is used, but also to how it is used from the point of view of certain contextual adjustments. This raises the importance of the functional and the contextual aspects of word meaning.
It would be rather interesting to observe this mechanism from the point of view of the one who has to comprehend the statement, e.g.: a cracking good story causes a problem when decoding this expression, as the learner's experience is based mainly on some information he gets from dictionaries. In this case they are not enough. The position of "cracking" in the expression points out that the word functions as an adverb of degree. It helps to make clear its logical meaning, and the wider context helps to define the personal attitude, and some connotations the word introduces. When we are aware of the situation we can comprehend the textual meaning "behind the text", so we can define the contextual meaning of the language unit.
The function of language is to represent language units on the basis of their potential forms and the intercommunication existing in language system. Being aware of system forms and their combinations means their occasional meanings or their functions in an expression can be construed.
Similar to grammatical categories that can be either objective or subjective, lexical units are also divided into objective and subjective units - language signs of full meaning and functional language signs.
So a person has some ideal representation of reality with the help of his imaginative world, some definitions or fancies. Thus the objective nature of a language unit is in representing the reality, expressing the two sides of a sign, defining some concepts and their combinations. To define the meaning of a word it's of great importance to make clear its connection with the person using such language units, and the relationships between the words themselves in the lexical system of language and in a certain sentence.
Lexical meaning is a complex thing based on the procedure of reflecting the reality in a person's mind.
The choice of the necessary nominative units is always performed within a limited quantity of units and their forms. On account of that some variants of separate forms are possible.
Despite the fact that the amount of lexical indices is limited in a person's mind, the realization of meaning in expression can be considered unlimited.
It might be also underlined that the communicative realization of any language unit functions is in their potential. These potential abilities are embodied in the communication first and then they become a part of language system.
3. Practical contrastive analysis of the semantic structure of the word 'man' in English and Ukrainian languages.
To understand whole semantic structure of the word 'man', at first it's necessary to study the history of its formation, its etymology.
According to Bloomsbury Dictionary of Word Origins:
man [OE] Man is widespread Germanic word (with relatives in German mann 'man' and mensch 'person', Dutch and Swedish man 'man', Danish mand 'man', and Swedish menniska 'person'), and connections have even been found outside Germanic (Sanskrit, for instance, had m?nu- 'man'). But no decisive evidence has been found for an ultimate Indo-European source. Among the suggestions put forward have been links with a base men- 'think' or 'breathe', or with Latin manus 'hand'.
The etymologically primary sense of the word is 'human being, person,' and that is what it generally meant in Old English: the sexes were generally distinguished by wer 'man' (which survives probably in werewolf and is related to world) and wїf (source of modern English wife) or cwene 'woman.' But during the Middle English and early modern English periods 'male person' gradually came to the fore and today 'person' is decidedly on the decline (helped on its way by those who feel that usage discriminates against women). Woman originated in Old English as a compound of wїf 'woman, female' and man 'person'.
As to talk about nominative and nominative-derivative meaning we have to mention such different meanings:
1. an adult human male, esp. as distinct from a woman or a boy - мужчина, чоловік
a man of a thirty - тридцятилітній чоловік;
a tall man - високий чоловік;
men, women and children - чоловіки, жінки та діти;
to play the man - поводитись по-чоловічому (мужньо);
he is only half a man - він несправжній мужчина.
Mr. Simpkins is a man who knows his own mind. (T. S. Eliot)
He had seen old men cry, and little boys, but never a man, man of feeling, honour, peace, property, sense, wisdom, etc. (B. Rubens)
2. a human being, a person - людина
the man in the street - людина з вулиці. звичайна людина;
straight man - чесна людина;
a man of principle - людина принципів;
a man of his word - людина слова;
a man of honour - порядна (чесна) людина;
a man of straw - ненадійна людина, кривоприсяжник;
a man of ideas - винахідлива людина;
a man of character - людина з характером (сильним, вередливим тощо)
Misery acquaints a man with strange bedfellows. (Shakespeare)
The Child is father to the Man. (Wordsworth)
When the wind is in the east, 'tis neither good for man nor beast. (Proverb)
3. (without article) the human race- людство, людський рід
Man must change in a changing word. - У змінному світі людство повинне мінятись теж.
man is mortal - людський рід смертний
Man is not only a working but a talking animal. (Carlyle)
4. a person showing the characteristics associated with males - чоловік, мужчина
she's more of a man than he is - вона поводить себе більш по-чоловічому, ніж він; з неї більший чоловік, ніж з нього.
5. any of the sort of the human-like creatures that lived in former times - людина
neanderthal man - неандерталець;
peking man -