... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

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Ринкова економіка - Курсова робота

reconstructs old in those spheres of activity, branches or regions, where the private capital connected is not enough. So, the public sector plays a huge role in economy, preparation andretraining of the staff. The state-owned firms are engaged also in foreign trade, export of the capital abroad, frequently acting by the pioneers in introduction of the national capital in any country (for example, participation of the German concern " Volkswagen ", federal taking place in property federal and ground governments, in motor industry of Czech).
In the whole public sector serves addition of a private enterprise there and such measure, where and as far as the motivation for the private capital appears insufficient. In result the public sector serves to increase of efficiency of a national economy as a whole and is one of tools of redistribution of a total internal product (the complete internal product is a cumulative cost of production of sphere of material manufacture and spheres of services, irrespective of a national accessory of the enterprises located in territory of the given country).
The sizes of public sector, its share in national economy, change not only as a result of new construction and purchase, but also as a consequence of a privatisation - sale profitable, reconstructed objects of public sector to the private capital. In 80-th and 90-th years this tendency appreciably has amplified.
Alongside with the listed tools of state regulation of economy having internal economy the orientation, an arsenal of means of the external economic regulation exists.
Practically all levers of influence on process of reproduction inside the country render essential influence on foreign economic relations: change of the registration rate, taxation new privileges and grants on the investment in a fixed capital etc.
However there are also special tools of direct influence on economic communications with abroad. It is, first of all, a measure of stimulation of export of goods, services, capitals, scientific and technical and administrative experience: crediting of export, warranting of the export credits and investments abroad, introduction or cancellation of quantitative restrictions, change of the duty in foreign trade; measures on attraction or restriction of access of the foreign capital in a national economy, change of conditions of its functioning, qualitative selection (from the point of view of a branch orientation and technological level) acting from abroad capital, attraction in the country of a foreign labour, participation in the international economic organisations, integration state associations.
The separate tools of state economic politics can be used in the various purposes, in various combinations and with different intensity. Depending on character of the purposes the place of that or other tool in an arsenal of means of state regulation of economy in the concrete period will vary.
The maximum form of state regulation of economy is the state economic programming. Its task - complex use in the global purposes of all elements of state regulation of economy.
In process of complication of tasks on regulation of economy of government of steel to formulate short-term, intermediate term and long-term tasks to determine the order of their decision and bodies responsible for performance of these decisions, to allocate necessary means and to determine the order of financing.
Objects of such target programs usually are the branches (in particular, agriculture); regions; social sphere (for example, social economic adaptation settlers, maintenance by their work and habitation); various directions of scientific researches.
The programs are usual and extreme. The usual intermediate term programs are made, as a rule, for five years with annual updating and prolongation for one year (sliding programming). The extreme programs are developed in critical situations, for example, in conditions of crisis, mass unemployment dangerous inflation; they, as a rule, short-term. In toolkits of their realisation the appreciable place is occupied with means of administrative regulation.
The level of development of state programming in the separate countries is various. Practically in all countries of market economy the target programs are carried out. One of oldest - regional-power target program on development of pool of the river Tennessee in USA, program of development of nuclear power in France, economic development of the south of Italy.
The national extreme programs on restoration of economy of Southern Korea after war, on structural reorganisation and privatisation of new grounds (East Germany) after connection of GDR to Germany are known.
In a citadel of a market economy - USA - the national programming is not present, but widely target and extreme programs are applied. Obviously, the distinctions in a degree of development of programming in the separate countries depend on character and scales of tasks, which economic and social situation puts before the state.
The subjects of economic programming - official bodies responsible for drawing up of the programs, their direct realisation and control above them. The programs are developed by a special state body (for example, Commissaries on planning in France), and if it is not present, by the ministries of economy and finance or special ministry system. Thus the ministry of economy, as a rule, prepares the project of the program, formulates hierarchy of the purposes, terms and sequence of realisation of separate measures, names instances which are bearing responsibility for performance.
The ministry of the finance develops the plan of financing of the program. The representatives of the central bank, unions of the businessmen, commercial and industrial chambers, trade unions are widely involved in development of the programs, the various commissions and advice of the experts are created.
The program and financial plan are annually (in connection with a sliding principle of prolongation) affirmed by parliament, also of time per one year the reports on their performance are heard.
The state economic programming has appeared rather effective at the decision of a number of economic and social tasks, however this efficiency has objective borders. In conditions of market economy the programming can be only indicative, that is to carry target-stimulating character. Nevertheless, it has appeared a rather effective means of the decision of tasks of a different level; if the state programs frequently also were not realised completely, all of them - provided social economic development in a desirable direction. That circumstance is not less important also, that the programming allows systematically using all means of state regulation of economy, to avoid discrepancy and inconsistency of regulating measures of separate