... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Ринкова економіка - Курсова робота

Ринкова економіка - Курсова робота

general purpose can not be achieved. These concrete purposes indissoluble are connected withobjects of state regulation of economy. The purpose - alignment of a business cycle - is directed on the object, that is on a business cycle; improvement of an environment - on an environment etc.
It is obvious, that the purposes, first, uncommon on importance and scales and, secondly are in close interrelation. More often one purpose can not be put and is achieved without dependence from others. For example, it is impossible to present stimulation НИОКР without creation of favourable conditions of accumulation of the capital, without alignment of a conjuncture, perfection of branch structure of economy, stable money manipulation.
The listed purposes partially block each other, one can appear temporarily more important and to subordinate to herself others depending on a real economic and social situation, level of comprehension of this situation by the subjects of state regulation of economy and from established by governmental bodies on the given interval of time of system of priorities of the purposes. Any of the above named purposes can serve, to promote or to interfere with achievement of other purpose. The concrete purposes inside a tree of the purposes can be primary, secondary, tertiary etc. For example, in conditions of crisis the primary purpose becomes an exit from crisis in narrow concrete sense - revival of a conjuncture. All other purposes submit to it.
The means of state regulation are subdivided on administrative and economic.
The administrative means are not connected with creation of additional material stimulus or danger of financial damage. They are based on force of state authority and include measures of an interdiction, sanction and compulsion.
For example, the French authorities have forbidden to build the new industrial enterprises within the limits of Parisian agglomerations, and for achievement of this purpose they did not increase the taxes by the new enterprises, have not entered rude the penalties, which could be economic measures, and simply have stopped licensing for new industrial construction.
Or, the government of the Netherlands has solved to use former naval base as passenger and trade port, by creating, thus, new sphere of the appendix of the capital. In result in area of port the economic activity has increased.
The administrative means of regulation in the advanced countries with market economy are used in insignificant scales. Their sphere of action basically is limited to protection of an environment and creation of the minimal household conditions rather poorly of socially protected layers of the population. However in critical situations their role strongly grows, for example, during war, emergency in economy. The most large-scale administrative actions on regulation of economy in after War period of Japan were currency reformed and made smaller of conducting concerns.
The economic means of state regulation are subdivided into means of money credit and budget politics.
The independent complex tool of state regulation of economy (and simultaneously by its object) is the public sector in economy. The maximum form of state regulation of economy is a state economic programming covering the numerous purposes and all tooling of state regulation of economy. About public sector and economic programming the speech will go below.
The basic economic means are:
1) Regulation of the registration rate (discount politics which is carried out by the central bank);
2) Establishment and change of the sizes of the minimal reserves, which financial institutions of the country are obliged to keep in the central bank;
3) Operation of official bodies in the market of valuable papers, such as issue of the state obligations, trade by them and repayment.
Through these tools the state aspires to change a parity of a supply and demand in the financial market (market of the loan capitals) in a desirable direction. In process of relative decrease of a role of the markets of the free capitals in financing capital investments and especially in connection with reduction of a role of a share stock exchange and growth of self-maintenance of the large companies by financial assets the effectiveness of these tools in the most advanced countries has weakened a little.
The direct state economic regulation is carried out by means of budget politics. The state budget is an annual plan of the state charges and sources of the incomes of their financial covering. The project of the budget annually is discussed and is accepted by a legislative body - parliament of the country, state or government by assembly. After the end of financial the year the proxy representatives of the executive authority report about the activity on mobilisation of the incomes and realisation of the charges in conformity with accepted in the previous year by the law on the budget.
The state budget always represents the compromise reflecting a parity of forces of the basic groups of carriers of various social economic interests. The charges of the state budget carry out functions of political, social and economic regulation.
The first place in the budget charges is occupied with social clauses: the special grants, education, public health services etc. In it the overall objective of budget politics, as well as all state economic politics in general - stabilisation, strengthening and adaptation existing social economic building to varying conditions is shown. These charges are called to soften differentiation of social groups, it is inevitable peculiar to market character.
In expenses for economic needs the budget grants to agriculture are usually allocated. Any state can not be interested in ruin the peasantry, farmers. And though in the external economic politics of government sometimes temporarily endow interests of the domestic manufacturers of the agrarian goods, supposing foreign agricultural production on a home market in reply to concession of the trade partners, as a rule governments support average and large farmers land.
The charges on arms and material maintenance of external politics, and also administrative charge influence demand for consumer goods and services.
To the tactical purposes of budget regulation the charges on an internal state duty (for example, prescheduled repayment of a part of the debt), sizes of the charges on the credits both grants to the private and state enterprises, agriculture, on creation and perfection of objects of an infrastructure, on purchase of arms and military construction serve.
The sizes of these charges essentially influence scales of demand and size of the investments. During crises and depressions the charges of the state budget on the economic purposes, as a rule, grow, and in time when of slowing