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Ринкова економіка - Курсова робота

The excess of unemployment above a natural level is determined in the basic cyclic factor, i.e. condition of a conjuncture in the country.
Changes of unemployment is influenced, besides demographic factors, with changes in structure of economy, condition of foreign trade and export of the capital, scales of the military charges, economic and social politics of thestate.
Owing to variety of internal regulators of the market of a labour, and also by virtue of social importance of its effective functioning the market of work requires the qualified regulation.
It is possible to allocate four basic directions of state regulation of the market of work. First, it is the programs on stimulation of growth of employment and increase of number of workplaces in public sector, secondly, programs directed on preparation and retraining of a labour, and, thirdly, program of assistance to hiring of a labour. Besides the government accepts the programs on social insurance of unemployment, i.e. allocates means for the grants with the unemployed.
Within the framework of this program in USA, for example, in after war period - hundred thousand workplaces in public sector (in sphere of public services - education, health services, municipal services, and also in construction of public buildings and structures and in remaking works) were created. With the help of these programs the rate of unemployment at the end of the 70-th years was artificial is underestimated on 0,8 percentage items.
The more and more important meaning gets state assistance to hiring. So, service of giving jobs in USA having more of 2500 local agencies (labour exchanges), is engaged in registration of the unemployed, tries to find by it vacancies, will carry out testing the applicants for work for definition of their qualification.
The listed directions do not settle all measures of influence of the state on the market of work. Alongside with them there is a complex of measures of indirect regulation of a labour: tax, money-credit and amortisation politics of government. Besides the considerable influence on the market of work renders also legislation - about social maintenance, about the labour relations, about the equal civil rights etc.
The measures of indirect regulation of the market of a labour simultaneously are also measures economic of regulation and influence a conjuncture in the country.
The special place in system of regulation of the market of work is occupied with labour exchange (service of employment, service to assistance to hiring), being one of the important structures of a market economic mechanism. It represents special establishment, which is carrying out intermediary functions in the market of a labour. In the majority of the countries of labour exchange are state and carry out the activity under the direction of the ministry of work or body, similar to it(him). At the same time in the market of work alongside with state services of employment the large number of private intermediate firms functions, the efficiency of which activity is very high.
The basic directions of activity of labour exchanges are:
1) Registration of the unemployed;
2) Registration of vacant places;
3) Giving jobs to the unemployed and other persons wishing to get a job;
4) Study of a conjuncture of the market of work and granting of the information about it(her);
5) Testing the persons wishing to offer work;
6) Professional orientation and professional retraining of the unemployed;
7) Payment of the grants.
The majority of the economists believe, that the problem of unemployment and other disproportion in the market of work can be softened only with the help of a combination of various means - stimulation of economic growth, reduction of working week, creation of an effective system of retraining of the staff.
Thus, the modern state regulation of the market of work represents a complex of economic, administrative, organisational and other measures.
The existing nowadays system of state regulation of economy has developed not at once. During the development it has passed some stages:
1) Creation of general favourable conditions for reproduction of the private capital; a concentration of efforts of the state on development of the labour, tax, trade, social legislation, customs politics, on maintenance of stability of money. Construction and purchase of objects in raw and infrastuctural branches.
2) The unmatched among them actions of an anticrisis and structural orientation, attempt to influence employment and prices.
3) Experiments with use of money-credit and budget means of regulation of economy. A wave of a privatisation of objects of a state ownership.
4) Transition in a number of the countries to branch and regional intermediate term programming; attempts to increase effectiveness of state regulation of economy by study of compatibility and interchangeability of tools of regulation, definition of their efficiency.
5) Realisation in the increasing number of the advanced countries of nation-wide intermediate term programming in a combination to development long-term perspective ways. More and more address, dosing and complex use of tools of regulation.
6) Measure as agreed of nation-wide intermediate term programs at an interstate level in framework integration of associations; steps in a direction national of planning.
On scales, the tools and efficiency of state regulation of economy decisive influence rendered tasks rising before economy of the separate countries, material opportunities of the states reflected in a share to them of a total internal product and in the absolute sizes of means, which it is ready to use on state regulation of economy accrued experience and successes in scientific development of problems of state economic politics in conditions of a market economy.
The mechanism of state regulation of economy is constantly improved, irrespective of, the governments on principles of economic politics are guided or are inclined to use more rigid budget tools of regulation. In modern conditions the practice of state regulation of economy has appeared rather productive to not admit general crises and social - dangerous of scales of unemployment.
The literature.
1) Economy. The textbook for economic academies, high schools and faculties. Under edition of the candidate of economic sciences, senior lecturer of AMPERE-SECOND. Bulatova. Publishing house. Moscow 1995.
2) Macroeconomic. The manual. M.K. Bunkina,V.A. Semenov. Publishing house " Moscow 1995.
3) Social market economy. The German way. Chaints Lampert. Publishing house "Business". Moscow 1994.
4) Market economy. The textbook. Volume 1, part 1. Publishing house "Somintek". Moscow 1992.