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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Verb: the Category of Mood - Реферат

Verb: the Category of Mood - Реферат

to have a smoke - to smoke; to give a smile - to smile; to take a stroll - to stroll.
B) а combination of a head verb with a verbal postposition that has a specificational value. Ex. stand up; go on; give in; be off, get along.
On the basis of the subject-process relation all the notional verbs be divided into actional and statal.
Actional verbs express the action performed by the subject. To this class belong such verbs as do, act, make, go, read, learn, discover, etc.
Statal verbs denote the caste of their subject. To this subclass belong such verbs as be live, survive, worry, suffer, see, know, etc. They usually occur in the simple form in all tenses. They are not generally used in progressive forms. But if there are used so there any change of meaning. E.g.: Oh, it hurts! - Oh, it's hurting!
Finite & non-finite verbs
The complicated structure and character of the verb has given rise to much dispute and controversy. The morphological field of the English verb heterogeneous. It includes a number of groups or classes of verbs, which differ from each other in their morphological and syntactic properties.
All English verbs have finite and non-finite forms.
The finite verb invariably performs the function of the verb- predicate. Finite verbs are subdivided into regular and irregular depending on the way the participle II are formed.
Non-finite verbs perform different functions according to their intermediary nature (subject, object, adverbial modifier, attribute). They may be used as any member of the sentence but the predicate. Inside the sentence verbals make up complexes with other members of the sentence.
The nucleus of the morphological field of the verb is based on the finite verbs, and the periphery includes all other groups of verbs and verbals.
The grammatical categories which find formal expression in the outward structure of the verb are categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood. This complete set is revealed in every word-form of the notional finite form.
From the functional point of view the class of verbs may be subdivided into the set of full nominative value and partial. Notional verbs are verbs of full nominative value. The set of partial nominative value represent semi-notional and functional verbs. The first set is derivationally open it includes the bulk of the verbal lexicon. The second set is derivationally closed, it includes limited subsets of verbs characterized by individual relational properties.
Semi-notional and functional verbs include auxiliary verbs, modal verbs, link-verbs. Semi-notional verbs (seem, happen, turn out, begin, continue, stop, fall, try, etc).
Link-verbs: seem, appear, look, feel, become, get, grow, remain, keep.
Auxiliary verbs constitute grammatical elements of the categorical forms of the verb. These are the verbs be, have, do shall, will, should, may, might. Auxiliary verbs to give other information about actions and states.
Ex. be may be used with the present participle of a full verb to say that an action was going on at a particular time ("in progress"). I was swimming.
Ex.: The verb "to have" may be used with the past participle of a full verb to say that an action is completed (I have finished my job).
Link-verbs introduce the nominal part of the predicate (the predicative), which is commonly expressed by a noun, an adjective or a phrase of a similar semantico-grammatical character. It should be noted that link-verb, although they are named so, are not devoid of meaningful content. Their function is connecting (linking) the subject and the predicative of the sentence. The linking function in the purest form is effected by the verb be (pure link-verb). All the link-verbs other than the pure links the pure specification express some specification (specifying link-verbs). Two main groups:
A) perceptional link verbs: seem, appear, look, feel, taste.
B) factual limk-verbs: become, get, grow, remain, keep.
Verbals make up a special grammatical category.
The infinitive
Among the various forms of the verb the infinitive occupies a unique position. Its status is that of the principal representative of the verb-lexeme as a whole. This is determined by the two factors:
A) its giving the most general dynamic name to the process;
B) its serving as the actual derivative base for all the other regular forms of the verb.
The Infinitive is intermediate between the verb and the noun. It combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun. It is considered as the head-form of the whole paradigm of the verb.
The Participle
The Participle is intermediate between the verb and the adjective and adverb.
The Present Participle is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb and those of the adjective and adverb, serving as qualifying processual name. In its outer form the present participle is wholly homonymous with the gerund and distinguishes the same grammatical categories.
Like all the verbals it has no categorical time distinctions, and the attribute "present" in its conventional name is not immediately explanatory; it is used from force of tradition.
Past Participle is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective, serving as the qualifying processual name. It is a single form, having no paradigm of its own. It conveys implicitly the categorial meaning of the perfect and the passive. The main functions in the sentence are those of the attribute and the predicative.
The gerund
The gerund is the non- finite form of the verb, which like the infinitive combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun. Similar to the infinitive, gerund serves as me verbal name of a process, but its substantive quality is more strongly pronounced than that of the Infinitive.
A question might arise, why the Infinitive and not the gerund is taken as the head-form of the verbal paradigm?
The gerund cannot perform the function of the paradigmatic head-form for a number of reasons. In the first place, it is more detached from the finite verb than the infinitive semantically. Then it is a suffixal form, which makes it less generalized. Finally, it is less definite, being subject to easy neutralization in its opposition. Hence the gerund is no rival of the infinitive in the paradigmatic head-form function.
The formal sign of the gerund is wholly homonymous with that of the present participle: it is the suffix "-ing" added to the grammatically leading element. Like the infinitive the gerund is a categoriallychangeable form. It distinguishes the aspective category of retrospective coordination (perfect in opposition), and the category of voice (passive in opposition). Consequently the categorical paradigm of the gerund includes 4 forms: the simple, the perfect active, the simple passive the perfect passive.
Modal Verbs
Modal verbs express the attitude: ability, obligation, permission, advisability, probability. Modal Verbs are defective in forms. They do