... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Architecture - Реферат

Architecture - Реферат

of Gothic styles: England
Salisbury Cathedral detail
The designations of styles in English architecture still follows conventions of labels given them by the antiquary Thomas Rickman, who coined the terms in his Attempt to Discriminate the Style of Architecture in England (1812-1815)
" Early English (ca 1180 - 1275)
" Decorated (ca 1275 - 1380 )
" Perpendicular (ca 1380 - 1520 ).
Early English:
" Salisbury Cathedral
" Wells Cathedral
" Westminster Abbey
Decorated or "Flamboyant":
" Exeter Cathedral
" King's College Chapel, Cambridge
Secular Gothic Architecture in England
Few examples of secular structures in Gothic style survive. The "Old Palace" at Hatfield, built in 1497, is famous for its entrance wing with an imposing gatehouse, which gave access to the protected inner court. This is an example of the last phase of Gothic design in England which, due to its far northern situation, was still untouched by the Renaissance underway in central Italy. Local building traditions produced a vernacular style that was as important as Gothic in the final appearance. The roofs are tiled in the local East Anglian tradition. Substantial eaves enclose essential storage areas in spacious attics. The Gothic elements in these buildings are the paired lancet windows joined under a molding that threw rainwater away from their sills, and the buttresses between each pier and on the angles of the gatehouse tower.
Gothic revival
Main article: Gothic revival architecture
Chateau d'Abbadie, Hendaye, France: a Gothic pile for the natural historian and patron of astronomy Antoine d'Abbadie, 1860 - 1870; Viollet-le-Duc, architect
In England, some discrete Gothic details appeared on new construction at Oxford and Cambridge in the late 17th century, and at the archbishop of Canterbury's residence Lambeth Palace, a Gothic hammerbeam roof was built in 1663 to replace a building that had been sacked during the English Civil War. It is not easy to decide whether these instances were Gothic survival or early appearances of Gothic revival,.
In England in the mid-18th century, the Gothic style was more widely revived, first as a decorative, whimsical alternative to Rococo that is still conventionally termed 'Gothick', of which Horace Walpole's Twickenham villa "Strawberry Hill" is the familiar example. Then, especially after the 1830s, Gothic was treated more seriously in a series of Gothic revivals (sometimes termed Victorian Gothic or Neo-Gothic). The Houses of Parliament in London are an example of this Gothic revival style, designed by Sir Charles Barry and a major exponent of the early Gothic Revival, Augustus Pugin. Another example is the main building of the University of Glasgow designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott.
In France, the towering figure of the Gothic Revival was Eug?ne Viollet-le-Duc, who outdid historical Gothic constructions to create a Gothic as it ought to have been, notably at the fortified city of Carcassonne in the south of France and in some richly fortified keeps for industrial magnates (illustration, left). Viollet-le-Duc compiled and coordinated an Encyclop?die m?di?vale that was a rich repertory his contemporaries mined for architectural details but also include armor, costume, tools, furniture, weapons and the like. He effected vigorous restoration of crumbling detail of French cathedrals, famously at Notre Dame, many of whose most "Gothic" gargoyles are Viollet-le-Duc's. But he also taught a generation of reform-Gothic designers and showed how to apply Gothic style to thoroughly modern structural materials, especially cast iron.
Gothic in the 20th Century
Gasson Hall on the campus of Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts
Neo-Gothic continued to be considered appropriate for churches and college buildings well into the 20th century. Charles Donagh Maginnis's early buildings at Boston College helped establish the prevalence of Collegiate Gothic architecture on American university campuses, such as at Chicago, Princeton, Yale and Duke. It was also used, perhaps less appropriately, for early steel skyscrapers.
Cass Gilbert produced his 1907 90 West Street building and the 1914 Woolworth Building, both in Manhattan, in a neo-Gothic idiom. It was Raymond Hood's neo-Gothic tower that won the 1922 competition for the Chicago Tribune Tower, a late example of the vertical style that has been called "American Perpendicular Gothic."
Another Gothic structure of interest is the jailhouse built in DeRidder, Louisiana in 1914. The iron bars in most of the windows give the structure an eerie appearance. The structure includes shallow arches, dormer windows and has a central tower. It is now on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Cathedral is also a neo-Gothic structure.
The last prominent Gothic architect in America was probably Ralph Adams Cram, working in the 1910s and 1920s. With partner Bertram Goodhue they produced many good examples, like the sensitive and clever French High Gothic St. Thomas Episcopal Church, New York with its asymmetrical, urban facade in the heart of Manhattan. Working alone, Cram took up the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, what he meant to be the largest cathedral and largest Gothic struture in the world, again in French High Gothic. It remains unfinished. Both St. Thomas and St. John the Divine are built without steel.
Art Deco (French: Exposition Internationale des Arts D?coratifs et Industriels Modernes) was a twentieth century movement in the decorative arts, that grew to influence architecture, design,fashion and the visual arts.
The name Art Deco derived from the Exposition Internationale des Arts D?coratifs et Industriels Modernes, though the term was not used until the late 1960s. Art Deco was influenced by many different cultures, particularly pre-World War I Europe. The movement occurred at the same time, and as a response to, the rapid social and technological advances of the early 20th century.
Paris was at the center of the high end of Art Deco design, epitomized in furniture by Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann, the best-known of Art Deco furniture designers and perhaps the last of the traditional Parisian ?b?nistes, and Jean-Jacques Rateau, the firm of S?e et Mare, the screens of Eileen Gray, wrought iron of Edgar Brandt, metalwork and lacquer of Jean Dunand, the glass of Ren? Lalique and Maurice Marinot, clocks and jewelry by Cartier.
The term Art Deco was coined during the Exposition of 1925 but did not receive wider usage until it was re-evaluated in the 1960s. Its practitioners were not working as a coherent community. It is considered to be an eclectic form of decorative Modernism, being influenced by a variety of sources:
" Early work from the Wiener Werkst?tte; functional industrial design, with roots in the later nineteenth century
" "Primitive" arts of Africa, Egypt, or Aztec Mexico, partly mediated through Decorative Cubism
" Early work and thinking of the Weimar Bauhaus in its expressionist phase.
" Ancient Greek sculpture and ceramic design of the less naturalistic "archaic period"
" L?on Bakst's sets and costumes for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes
" Fractionated, crystalline, facetted form of