... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Mass media in great Britain - Курсова робота

Mass media in great Britain - Курсова робота

is most famous of all British newspapers. Politically it is independent, but is generally inclined to be sympathetic to the Conservative Party. It is not a government organ, though very often its leading articles may be written after private consultation with people in the Government. It has a reputation for extreme caution, though it has always been a symbol of solidity in Britain. Its reporting is noted for reliability and completeness and especially in foreign affairs. Its reputation for reflecting or even anticipating government policy gives it an almost official tone.
The popular newspapers are now commonly called "tabloids". This word first used for pharmaceutical substances compressed into pills. The tabloid newspapers compress the news, and are printed on small sheets of paper. They use enormous headlines for the leading items of each day, which are one day political, one day are to do with a crime, one day sport, one day some odd happening. They have their pages of political report and comment, short, often over-simplified but vigorously written and (nowadays) generally responsible. They thrive on sensational stories and excitement.
"The Guardian" (until 1959-"The Manchester Guardian") has become a truly national paper rather than one specially connected with Manchester. In quality, style and reporting it is nearly equal with "The Times". In politics it is described as "radical". It was favourable to the Liberal Party and tends to be rather closer in sympathy to the Labour party than to the Conservatives. It has made great progress during the past years, particularly among the intelligent people who find "the Times" too uncritical of the Establishment.
'The Daily Telegraph" (1855) is the quality paper with the largest circulation (1.2 million compared with "The Times's 442 thousand and "The Guardian's" 500 thousand). In theory it is independent, but in practice it is such caters for the educated and semi-educated business and professional classes. Being well produced and edited it is full of various information and belongs to the same class of journalism as "The Times" and "The Guardian".
In popular journalism the "The Daily Mirror" became a serious rival of the "Express" and "Mail" in the 1940s. It was always tabloid, and always devoted more space to picture than to text. It was also a pioneer with strip cartoons. After the Second World War it regularly supported the Labour Party. It soon outdid the "Daily Express" in size of headlines, short sentences and exploration of excitement. It also became the biggest-selling daily newspaper. For many years its sales were about four million; sometimes well above.
The daily papers have no Sunday editions, but there are Sunday papers, nearly all of which are national: " The Sunday Times" (1822, 1.2 million), "The Sunday Telegraph" (1961, 0.7 million), the "Sunday Express" (1918, 2.2 million), "The Sunday Mirror" (1963, 2.7 million).
On weekdays there are evening papers, all of which serve their own regions only, and give the latest news. London has two evening newspapers, "The London Standard" and "The Evening News".
Traditionally the leading humorous periodical in Britain is "Punch", best known for its cartoons and articles, which deserve to be regarded as typical examples of English humour. It has in recent years devoted increasing attention to public affairs, often by means of its famous cartoons. This old British satirical weekly magazine, survives, more abrasive than in an earlier generation yet finding it hard to keep the place it once had in a more secure social system. Its attraction, particularly for one intellectual youth, has been surpassed by a new rival, "Private Eye", founded in 1962 by people who, not long before, had run a pupil's magazine in Shrewsbury School. Its scandalous material is admirably written on atrocious paper and its circulation rivals that of "The Economist".
Advertising Practice
Advertising in all non-broadcast media such as newspapers, magazines, posters (and also direct mail, sales promotions, cinema, and management of lists and databases) is regulated by the Advertising Standards Authority, an independent body funded by a levy on display advertising expenditure. The Authority aims to promote and enforce the highest standards of advertising in the interests of the public through its supervision of the British Code of Advertising Practise. The basic principles of the Code are to ensure that advertisements:
" Are legal, decent, honest and truthful;
" Are prepared with a sense of responsibility to the consumer and society; and
" Conform to the principles of fair competition as generally accepted in business.
The Authority includes among its activities monitoring advertisements to ensure their compliance with the Code and investigating complaints received directly from members of the public and competitors.
The advertising industry has agreed to abide by the Code and to back it up with effective sanctions. Free and confidential pre-publication advice is offered to assist publishers, agencies and advertisers. The Authority's main sanction is the recommendation that advertisements considered to be in breach of the Code should not be published. This is normally sufficient to ensure that an advertisement is withdrawn or amended. The Authority also publishes monthly reports on the results of its investigations, naming the companies involved.
The Authority is recognised by the Office of Fair Trading as being the established means of controlling non-broadcast advertising. The Authority can refer misleading advertisements to the Director General of Fair Trading, who has the power to seek an injunction to prevent their publication.
News Agencies
The principal news agencies in Britain are Reuters, an international news organisation registered in London, the Press Association and Extel Financial.
The oldest is "Reuters" which was founded in 1851. The agency employs some 540 journalists and correspondents in seventy countries and has links with about 120 national or private news agencies. The information of general news, sports, and economic reports is received in London every day and is transmitted over a network links and cable and radio circuits.
Reuters is a publicly owned company, employing 10,335 full-time staff in 79 countries. It has 1,300 staff journalists and photographers. The company served subscribers in 132 countries, including financial institutions; commodities houses; traders in currencies, equities and bonds; major corporations; government agencies; news agencies; newspapers; and radio and television stations.
Reuters has developed the world's most extensive private leased communications network to transmit its services. It provides the media with general, political, economic, financial andsports news, news pictures and graphics, and television news. Services for business clients comprise constantly