Communication takes place on "two planes": on linguistic and psychological one. On the linguistic plane the message is encoded; and on the psychological are factors which influence the linguistic message. On the conscious plane, the learner attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the music suggests that learning is easy and pleasant; when there is a unity between conscious and subconscious, learning is enhanced .
The class, where this method is used, is different from other classrooms - the students are seated in cushioned armchairs that are arranged in a semicircle facing the front of the room. The teacher is lively, dynamic, confidant, yet sensitive, and speaks only the target language, which suggests that the learners do the same. In the firsts three-hour meeting all learners choose a new name and nationality, after which they are given a fictional autobiography. By means of song, imitation, and play, the learners introduce themselves to each other and assume their new roles. Then over the next two days, the teacher twice presents a long script, each time with a different aim and a different learning set-up; these script performances called "concert sessions", are accompanied by music. In the first of these, the "active concert session", the music is emotional, and the tone of the artistic presentation reflects the character of the music. The learners have the script in two languages arranged in short phrases on opposite sides of the page. After the "concert session" come various kinds of elaboration activities, including group and choral reading of parts of the scripts, singing and playing games as a group and individually. The second day the script is performed again, this time in a "pseudopassive concert session" where a state of wakeful relaxation is artfully stimulated. This reading is accompanied by music of a different tone and mood, generally barouque style. Following that, the learners (in their new identities) are aided again in elaborating the script in various ways. This may include narrating a story or event, or creating an original story, using the language in the script .
Gradually the selection of vocabulary becomes more elaborate. It may include situations from literary works, rustic scenes, and facts from everyday life. Using pantomime to help the students understand, the teacher acts out various occupations, such as pilot, singer, carpenter and artist. The students choose what they want to be.
The teacher reads a dialogue partly in English and partly through pantomime, and outlines the dialogue's story. He also calls his students attention to some of the comments regarding vocabulary and grammar structures.
Next, the teacher asks the students to read the dialogue in a sad way, in an angry way and finally in an amorous way. This is followed by asking questions about the dialogues. Sometimes he asks the students to repeat an English line after him; still other times he addresses a question from the dialogue to an individual student.
So, the principles and techniques of Suggestopedia can be conveniently summarized under the following headings:
1. classroom set-up;
2. positive suggestion;
4. choosing a new indentity;
7. primary activation (the students playfully re-read the dialogue);
8. secondary activation (the students engage in various activities designed to help them learn the new material and use it spontaneously).
Activities particularly recommended for this phase include singing, dancing, dramatisations, games. The important thing is that the activities are varied and don't allow the students to focus on the form of the linguistic message, just the communicative intent.
And finally, instruction is designed so as to tap more successfully the learning powers of the mind and eliminate psychological barriers that block learning and inhibit production. The lessons are pleasant, interesting, and nonthreatening; the teacher gives lots of encouragement, and similar admonitions.
Having come to the realisation that each learner possesses distinct:
cognitive and personality traits, it follows that one teaching methodology will not be the most appropriate for allstudents. The recent tendency has therefore been towards eclecticism, selecting materials and techniques from various sources.
This obviously puts a much larger responsibility on the teacher, for now he should be familiar with a much wider range of materials, exercises and activities than before. It is no longer a matter of picking up the textbook and following it page by page.
Depending on the content and difficulty of the subject matter, the learner would apply one or more of these different types of learning in a given situation. Evidently, if the teacher is to be aware of this multiple individual cognitive and personality factors and be able diagnose and utilise them to the fullest, he must have more than a passing knowledge of the recent investigation in all related sciences. But the problem lies not only in lies amount of information to be mastered but in the organization and application of that knowledge to a practical situation.
An eclecticist tries to absorb the best techniques of all well-known language-teaching methods into his classroom procedures and seeks the balaced development of all four skills at all stages while retaining emphasis on an oral presentation first. He adopts his methods to the changing objectives of the day and to the types of students who pass through his classroom. The eclectic teacher is imaginative, energetic, resourceful, and willing to experiment. His lessons are varied and interesting.
1. Some grammatical explanations in native language.
2. Translation as short-cut to conveying meaning.
3. Balanced development of four skills at all stages with emphasis an aural-oral procedures. .
4. Adjustments according to needs of class and personalities of teachers.
Communicative Method of FLT
A comparative study of methods and approaches in TEFL/TESL has shown that the past methodologies seem to have pursued too narrow objectives. A flexible uniform language-teaching strategy should be based on a careful selection of facets of various methods and their integration into a cohesive, coherent working procedure which will suit the realities of the particular teaching situation. It is assumed that the goal of language leaching is the learner's ability to communicate in target language. It is assumed that the content of a language course will include linguistic structures, semantic