... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for Teaching EFL to high school graduates - Дипломна робота

Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for Teaching EFL to high school graduates - Дипломна робота

47.Campbell,Bruce. Multiplying Intelligence in the Classroom.On
the Beam,Vol IX, N2,Winter 1989.-127 p.
48.Campbell,Bruce. The Multiple Intelligences.NY,1995.-198 p.
49.Campbell,Bruce.The research Results of a Multiple Intelligences
Classroom.NY,1990.-211 p.
50.Campbell,Linda,Cample,Bruce,and Dickson,Dee. Teaching and
Learning Through MultipleIntelligences. NY:Allyn&Bacon.
1998( 2nd edition) ,-142 p.
51.Dickinson,Dee.Learning Through Many Kinds of Intelligence.
NY,1994.-412 p.
52.Ellison,Launa.Using Multiple Intelligences. Educational
Leadership,October,1992, p. 69-72.
53.Enloe,W., and Simon, K. Methods of teaching English. NY,1993-
121 p.
54.Fogarty, R., Perkins, D., and Barell, J. How to teach
ESL.NY,1992.-142 p.
55.Gardner, Howard. Intelligence in Seven Steps. NY,1991.-245 p.
56.Gardner, Howard, Mindy L. Kornhaber, Warren K. Wake.
Intelligence: Multiple Perspectives. NY: Harcourt, Brace. 1996.-
57.Gardner, Howard. Art Education and Human Development.Los
Angeles: The Getty Center for Education in the Arts, NY,1990.-
58.Gardner, Haward. Art,Mind and Brain. NY.: Basic Books, 1982.-
314 p.
59.Gardner, H. And Perkins, D. (Eds). Art,Mind, and Education.
Urbana: University of Illinois Press. The Spring, 1988 issue of
60.Journal of Aesthetic Education. 1987.-116 p.
61.Gardner, H. The Arts and Human Development. NY: Wiley,
1973.-321 p.
62.Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
Intelligences ( 10 th Anniversary Edition ). NY:Basic Books,
1993.-345 p.
63.Gardner, Howard. The Mind's New Science. NY: Basic Boocs,
1985.-134 p.
64.Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice.
NY: Basic Books, 1992.-231 p.
65.Gardner, Howard, and Thomas Hatch. Multiple Intelligences in
the senior forms. NY, 1989. -145 p.
66.Gardner, Howard, and Tina Blythe. A school for All Intelligences.
Educational Leadership April, 1990, p.33-37.
67.Gardner, Howard Veenema, Shirley . Multimedia and Multiple
Intelligences, The American Prospect no.29 (November-
December 1996): p. 69-75
68.Hoerr, Thomas R. How our school Applied Multiple Intelligences
Theory. Educational Leadership, October, 1992, 67-768.
69.Smagorinsky, Peter. Expressions:Multiple Intelligences in the
English Class. - Urbana. IL:National Council of teachers of
English,1991. - 240 p.
70.Wahl, Mark. Multiple Intelligences. NY, 1999. - 150 p.
Supplement 1. Relation of the Methodology of Foreign Language
Teaching to other sciences
Methods of foreign language teaching is understood here as a body of scientifically tested theory concerning the teaching of foreign languages in schools and others educational institutions. It covers three main problems:
1. aims of teaching a foreign language;
2. content of teaching, i.e. what to teach to attain the aims;
3. methods and techniques of teaching, i.e. how to teach a foreign language to attain the aims in the most effective way.
Methods of foreign language teaching is closely related to other sciences such as pedagogies, psychology, physiology, linguistics and some others.
Pedagogics is the science concerned with the teaching and education of the younger generation. Since Methods also deals with the problems of teaching and education, it is most closely related to pedagogics. To study foreign language teaching one must know pedagogics. One branch of pedagogics is called didactics. Didactics studies general ways of teaching in schools. Methods, as compared to didactics, studies the specific ways of teaching a definite subject. Thus, it may be considered special didactics. In the foreign language teaching, as well as in the teaching of mathematics, history and other subjects taught in schools, general principles of didactics are applied and, in their turn, influence and enrich didactics. For example, the so-called "principle of visualization" was first introduced in teaching foreign languages. Now it has become one of the fundamental principles of didactics and is used in teaching all school subjects without exception. Programmed instruction was first applied to teaching mathematics. Now through didactics it is used in teaching many subjects, including foreign languages.
Teaching a foreign language means first and foremost the formation and development of pupils' habits and skills in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. We cannot expect to develop such habits and skills of our pupils effectively if we do not know and take into account the p s y c h o l o g y of habits and skills, the ways of forming them, the influence of formerly acquired habits 'on the formation of new ones, and many other necessary factors that psychology can supply us with. At present we have much material in the field of psychology which can be applied to teaching a foreign language. For example, N. I. Zhinkin, in his investigation of the mechanisms of speech came to the conclusion that words and rules of combining them are most probably dormant in the kinetic center of the brain. When the ear receives a signal it reaches the brain, its hearing center and then passes to the kinetic center. Thus, if a teacher wants his pupils to speak English he must use all the opportunities he has to make them hear and speak it. Furthermore, to master a second language is to acquire another code, another way of receiving and transmitting information. To create this new code in the most effective way one must take into consideration certain psychological factors.
Effective learning of a foreign language depends to a great extent on the pupils' memory. That is why a teacher must know how he can help his pupils to successfully memorize and retain in memory the language material they learn. Here again psychological investigations are significant. In learning a subject both voluntary and involuntary memory is of great importance. In his investigation of involuntary memory P. K. Zinchenko came to the conclusion that this memory is retentive. Consequently, in teaching a foreign language we should create favourable conditions for involuntary memorizing. P. K. Zinchenko showed that involuntary memorizing is possible only when
pupils attention is concentrated not on fixing the material in their memory through numerous repetitions, but on solving some mental problems which deal with this material. To prove this the following experiment was carried out. Students