There are such advantages there:
There are a number of good reasons to use video in the senior forms . Video combines visual and audio stimuli, is accessible to those who have not yet learned to read and write well, and provides context for leanning. As for TEFL, video has the added benefit of providing real language and cultural information. Video can be controlled (stopped, paused, repeated), and it can be presented to a group of students, to individuals. It allows learners to see facial expressions and body language at the same time as they hear the stress, intonation, and rhythms of the language.
Many excellent videos present real language and the senior pupils can hear the genuine language. These videos include movies, television programmes, and news broadcasts; they can provide a realistic view of American culture.
The use of authentic videos is challenging. Often they do not provide the best means of explaining complex concepts or practicing particular grammar or writing skills.
It takes time for the teacher to preview and select authentic videos and then to prepare activities for learners. As the language use and the context of authentic videos are not controlled, teachers will need to take time these.
The teachers have to ask themselves the following questions before choosing a video or video series:
Will the video appeal to to my students? Will it make them want to learn?
Does the content match my instructional goals? Is it culturally appropriate for my learners.
Clarity of message:
Is the instructional message clear to my students?Here the teacher is vital. Preparing the learners to understand what they are going to watch makes the difference between time wasted and time well spent.
Is the rate of the language or instruction too fast for my students?
What graphics are used to explain a concept? Do they clarify it? Do they appear on screen long enough to be understood by the learner? In some instructional videos, graphics , charts, and even language patterns may be on the screen too briefly to be fully comprehended.
Length of sequence:
Is the sequence to be shown short enough? With ESL learners, segments that are less than five minutes are often sufficient. A two- to three- minute segment can easiely furnish enough material for one -hour lesson.
Independence of sequence:
Can this segment be understood without lengthy explanations of the plot, setting, and preceding and following it? Teachers need to decide whether it's worth investing the time and effort to prepare learners to understand the context of certain language and cultural nuances, or distinctions.
Availability and quality of related materials:
What print materials accompany the video.
Use of videos:
How will I use the video?
After the viewing, the teacher have to discuss the films with the senior pupils.
Videos are a powerful tool in helping English language learners improve their language skills. They provide the learner with content, context, and language. Videos will play an increase role in prividing ESL instruction to students in the classroom. The students get more information about U.S. culture.
1.Multiple Intelligences are used as strategy for TEFL.
2.According to the structure there are seven intelligences:
The Personal Intelligence,
3.With the help of these Intelligences we can teach English.
4.According to Howard Gardner's theory there are such principles:
1.Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple.
2.Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences.
3.Intelligences vary in development, both within and among individuals.
4.All intelligences are dynamic.
5.Multiple intelligences can be identified and described.
6.Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the multiplicity of intelligences.
7.The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence.
8.Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all intelligences.
9.All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless of age or circumstance.
10.A pure intelligence is rarely seen.
11.Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.
I have sketched the background and the major claims of a new
approach to the conceptualization and assessment of human intelligence. Put forth in 1983, the theory of multiple intelligences has inspired a number of research-and-development projects that are taking place in schools ranging from preschool through high school. Until now, our focus has fallen largely on the development of instruments that can assess strengths and weaknesses in an "intelligence-fair" way.
Thisresearch-and-development process has proved time consuming and costly. The measures must involve materials that are appealing and familiar to children; there is little precedent for developing scoring systems that go beyond linguistic and logical
criteria; and materials appropriate for one age group, gender, or social class may not be appropriate for others. Of course, it should be recalled that huge amounts of time and money have already been invested in standard psychometric instruments, whose
limitations have become increasingly evident in recent years.
Once adequate materials have been developed, it becomes possible to begin to address some of the theoretical claims that grow out of MI Theory. They have presented here some preliminary findings from one of our current projects. These results give some support to the major claims of the theory, inasmuch as children ranging in age from three to seven do exhibit profiles of relative strength and weakness. At the same time,
even these preliminary data indicate that the final story on Multiple Intelligences may turn out to be more complex than we envisioned. Thus, the rather different profile of results obtained with our two young populations indicates that, in future research, we must pay closer attention to three factors: (a) the developmental appropriateness of the
materials; (b) the social class background, which may well exert an influence on a child's ability and willingness to engage with diverse materials; and (c) the exact deployment of the Spectrum materials and assessment instruments in the classroom.
Some critics have suggested that MI Theory cannot be disconfirmed. The preliminary results presented here indicate