intonation-the rising and falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences (e.g., Are you REAdy?).
Incorporating Pronunciation in the Curriculum
In general, programs should start by establishing long range oral communication goals and objectives that identify pronunciation needs as well as speech functions and the contexts in which they might occur . These goals and objectives should be realistic, aiming for functional intelligibility (ability to make oneself relatively easily understood), functional communicability (ability to meet the communication needs one faces), and enhanced self-confidence in use . They should result from a careful analysis and description of the learners' needs . This analysis should then be used to support selection and sequencing of the pronunciation information and skills for each sub-group or proficiency level within the larger learner group .
To determine the level of emphasis to be placed on pronunciation within the curriculum, programs need to consider certain variables specific to their contexts.
the learners (ages, educational backgrounds, experiences with pronunciation instruction, motivations, general English proficiency levels)
the instructional setting (academic, workplace, English for specific purposes, literacy, conversation, family literacy)
institutional variables (teachers' instructional and educational experiences, focus of curriculum, availability of pronunciation materials, class size, availability of equipment)
linguistic variables (learners' native languages, diversity or lack of diversity of native languages within the group)
methodological variables (method or approach embraced by the program)
Incorporating Pronunciation in Instruction
Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and Goodwin propose a framework that supports a communicative-cognitive approach to teaching pronunciation. Preceded by a planning stage to identify learners' needs, pedagogical priorities, and teachers' readiness to teach pronunciation, the framework for the teaching stage of the framework offers a structure for creating effective pronunciation lessons and activities on the sound system and other features of North American English pronunciation.
description and analysis of the pronunciation feature to be targeted (raises learner awareness of the specific feature)
listening discrimination activities (learners listen for and practice recognizing the targeted feature)
controlled practice and feedback (support learner production of the feature in a controlled context)
guided practice and feedback (offer structured communication exercises in which learners can produce and monitor for the targeted feature)
communicative practice and feedback (provides opportunities for the learner to focus on content but also get feedback on where specific pronunciation instruction is needed).
A lesson on word stress, based on this framework, might look like the following:
The teacher presents a list of vocabulary items from the current lesson, employing both correct and incorrect word stress. After discussing the words and eliciting (if appropriate) learners' opinions on which are the correct versions, the concept of word stress is introduced and modeled.
Learners listen for and identify stressed syllables, using sequences of nonsense syllables of varying lengths (e.g., da-DA, da-da-DA-da).
Learners go back to the list of vocabulary items from step one and, in unison, indicate the correct stress patterns of each word by clapping, emphasizing the stressed syllables with louder claps. New words can be added to the list for continued practice if necessary.
In pairs, learners take turns reading a scripted dialogue. As one learner speaks, the other marks the stress patterns on a printed copy. Learners provide one another with feedback on their production and discrimination.
Learners make oral presentations to the class on topics related to their current lesson. Included in the assessment criteria for the activity are correct production and evidence of self-monitoring of word stress.
In addition to careful planning, teachers must be responsive to learners needs and explore a variety of methods to help learners comprehend pronunciation features. Useful exercises include the following:
Have learners touch their throats to feel vibration or no vibration in sound production, to understand voicing.
Have learners use mirrors to see placement of tongue and lips or shape of the mouth.
Have learners use kazoos to provide reinforcement of intonation patterns
Have learners stretch rubber bands to illustrate lengths of vowels.
Provide visual or auditory associations for a sound (a buzzing bee demonstrates the pronunciation of /z/).
Ask learners to hold up fingers to indicate numbers of syllables in words.
3.1.2 Use the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school
The Internet - a network that links computers all over the world - is now used widely by businesses, educators, government staff, and individuals for information gatthering, entertainment, commerce, and
Communication. Much has been written about the use of Internet technologies such as e-mail, listsers, bulletin boards, and newsgroups in ESLand foreign language classroom.
Skills developed through the World Wide Web.
Websites cover a wide variety of topics and interests including health, entertainment, news,, and sports. These sites provide information with which learners can interact in order to built basic language and employability skills.
A number of websites were created especially for English learners and contain exercises in grammar, vocabulary, writing, or reading.
with the help of many websites we can develop the linguistic intelligence. It gives us opportunity to write, listen and speak. We can speak with our partners in the UK or the USA using computer's Web. For example, one of my pupils likes to write letter by e-mail. He gets more information not only about another country or city but he learns the genuine English. He is developing the Linguistic Intelligence there.
with the help of Sound Card we can develop the Musical Intelli-
gence. If a person listens to the music he (or she) feels the musical
elements - pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding the
characteristic qualities of a tone).
3.1.3 Use of the Video in teaching English to secondary school graduates
Video can be used in a variety of instructional settings - in classrooms. In distance-learning sites where information is broadcast from a central point to learners who interact with a facilitatir via video or computer. It can be used in teachers'profecional development or with students as ways of presenting content, starting corversations, and providing illustration for concepts. Students or