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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → 228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

self-incrimination, private property.
Sixth Amendment - Trial by jury and other rights of the accused.
Seventh Amendment - Civil trial by jury.
Eighth Amendment - Prohibition of excessive bail, cruel punishment.
Ninth Amendment - Declares that other rights not listed may be protected.
Tenth Amendment - Grants residual power to the states and to the people.
Amendment - Congress cannot increase its members' pay until the next House election.
Now - 27 amendments.
Eleventh Amendment (1795): Clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals, and limits ability of citizens to sue states in federal courts and under federal law.
Twelfth Amendment (1804): Changes the method of presidential elections so that members of the electoral college cast separate ballots for president and vice-president.
Thirteenth Amendment (1865): Abolishes slavery and grants Congress power to enforce abolition.
Fourteenth Amendment (1868): Defines United States citizenship; prohibits states from abridging citizens' privileges and immunities and right to due process and the equal protection of the law; repeals the three-fifths compromise.
Fifteenth Amendment (1870): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's race, color, or previous status as a slave as a qualification for voting.
Sixteenth Amendment (1913): Allows federal taxes on income.
Seventeenth Amendment (1913): Establishes direct election of senators.
Eighteenth Amendment (1919): Prohibited beverage alcohol consumption and manufacture. Repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment.
Nineteenth Amendment (1920): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's sex as a qualification for voting.
Twentieth Amendment (1933): Changes details of Congressional and presidential terms and of presidential succession. Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment but permits states to retain prohibition and ban the importation of alcohol.
Twenty-second Amendment (1951): Limits president to two terms.
Twenty-third Amendment (1961): Grants presidential electors to the District of Columbia.
Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964): Prohibits the federal government and the states from requiring the payment of a tax as a qualification for voting for federal officials.
Twenty-fifth Amendment (1967): Changes details of presidential succession, provides for temporary removal of president, and provides for replacement of the vice-president.
Twenty-sixth Amendment (1971): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using an age greater than 18 as a qualification to vote.
Twenty-seventh Amendment (1992): Limits congressional pay raises.
71. What does the term "the founding fathers" mean?
Founding Fathers are persons instrumental not only in the establishment (founding) of a political institution, but also in the origination of the idea of the institution. It is applied especially to those men involved with the creation and early development of the United States of America, such as the signers of its Declaration of Independence and the framers of its Constitution, in which case it refers to such individuals as George Washington, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John and Samuel Adams, Alexander Hamilton.
72. Why is the 19lh century in the US often described as the century of growth and expansion?
Because it is marked with growth of territories, population (mass migration) and industrial growth.
73. In what ways did the US increase its territory in the 19lh century? By treaty (with Spain -1819-Florida, England 1846 - Oregon) by war (1848 - a war with Mexico- western part - California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona), by purchase (the Louisiana Purchase (1803- Jefferson bought from Napoleon the territory that almost doubled Am.ter.), the purchase of Alaska from Russia -1867 (the icebox of America; rich in gold and oil), the Gadsden Purchase -1853.)
74. Can you give any examples of land purchase in the 19lh century?
The Louisiana Purchase (1803- Jefferson bought from Napoleon the territory that almost doubled Am.ter: the French territory of Louisiana included far more land than just the current U.S. State of Louisiana; the lands purchased contained parts or all of present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota west of the Mississippi River, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, northern Texas, nearly all of Oklahoma, Kansas, the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Rocky Mountains, the portions of southern Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta that drain into the Missouri River, and Louisiana on both sides of the Mississippi River including the city of New Orleans. The land included in the Purchase comprises over one-quarter of the territory of the modern continental United States), the purchase of Alaska from Russia -1867 (the icebox of America; rich in gold and oil), the Gadsden Purchase -1853 (For $10 million, Mexico gave up about 76,735 sq km (about 29,640 sq mi), bounded on the east by the R?o Grande, on the north by the Gila River, and on the west by the Colorado River).
75. What Americanisms describe the westward expansion of the US in the 19th century?
Manifest Destiny was a nineteenth century belief that the United States had a divinely-inspired mission to expand, particularly across the North American frontier towards the Pacific Ocean. The phrase, which means obvious (or undeniable) fate, was coined by New York journalist John O'Sullivan in 1845, when he wrote that "it was the nation's manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us."
As the citizens of the U.S. spread westward, intense conflict with both the Native Americans and Mexico were inevitable. Already heavily depopulated due to diseases, the Native American peoples were unable to resist the endless stream of white settlers and the military that accompanied them; "Indian Removal" and the "Indian Wars" form some of the darker chapters in American history. Conflict with Mexico was more formal but also resulted in the (perhaps opportunistic) largescale acquisition of land for U.S. settlers. President Polk made it clear in his diaries that he had every intention to seize any Mexican territory that fell into U.S. hands. These two effects of Manifest Destiny have strongly colored its representation in historical hindsight; in spite of (or perhaps because of) strong belief in God and democracy, the imposition of majority rule on minorities can be horrific. It is said that a majority can be just as despotic as an absolute monarch. It should also be noted that the doctrine almost always described the white man as "God's chosen" who was bound to displace the "primitives" in his way.
Indian Removal refers to the policy of the government of the United