62. Why did the first big group of British protestant settlers come to the New World?
They wanted to escape from the religious persecution of Protestants in Catholic England. The New World, although filled with uncertainty and peril, offered both civil and religious liberty. The Puritans believed that government should enforce God's morality, and they strictly punished heretics, adulterers, drunks, and violators of the Sabbath. In spite of their own quest for religious freedom, the Puritans practiced a form of intolerant moralism. In 1636 an English clergyman named Roger Williams left Massachusetts and founded the colony of Rhode Island, based on the principles of religious freedom and separation of church and state, two ideals that were later adopted by framers of the U.S. Constitution.
63. What event does the name "Boston Tea Party" refer to? Бостонське чаювання.
In May 1773, Prime Minister North and the British parliament passed the Tea Act. The Tea Act allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists, bypassing the colonial wholesale merchants. This allowed the company to sell their tea cheaper than the colonial merchants who were selling smuggled tea from Holland.
This act revived the colonial issue of taxation without representation. The colonies once again demanded that the British government remove the tax on tea. In addition, the dockworkers began refusing to unload the tea from ships.
The Governor of Massachusetts demanded that the tea be unloaded. He also demanded that the people pay the taxes and duty on tea.
On the evening of December 16, 1773, a group of men calling themselves the "Sons of Liberty" went to the Boston Harbor. The men were dressed as Mohawk Indians. They boarded three British ships, the Beaver, the Eleanor and the Dartmouth, and dumped forty-five tons of tea into the Boston Harbor.
64. When was the Declaration of Independence signed? Who was its main author?
The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. It was ratified by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776; this anniversary is celebrated as Independence Day in the United States. The document is on display in the National Archives in Washington, D.C. The independence of the American colonies was recognized by Great Britain on September 3, 1783, by the Treaty of Paris.
On June 11, 1776, a committee consisting of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman, was formed to draft a suitable declaration to frame this resolution. Jefferson did most of the writing, with input from the committee. His original draft included a denunciation of the slave trade, which was later edited out, as was a lengthy criticism of the British people and parliament. His draft was presented to the Continental Congress on July 1, 1776.
65. What events preceded the War of Independence? How long did the war last?
Throughout the 1760s and 1770s, relations between Great Britain and thirteen of her North American colonies had become increasingly strained. 1770 - The Boston Massacre (Бостонское кровопролитие) - a confrontation between the group of British soldiers and colonists (5 people were killed). 1773- The Boston Tea Party.
Сconfrontation/battle broke out in 1775 at Lexington and Concord marking the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. Although there was little initial sentiment for outright independence, the pamphlet Common Sense by Thomas Paine was able to promote the belief that total independence was the only possible route for the colonies.
66. What are the expressions that are synonymous to "the War of Independence"? The Revolutionary War, The American Revolution.
67. What agreement was signed when the War of Independence had been finished? 1783 The treaty of Paris - England officially recognized American Independence.
68. When was the US Constitution adopted?
Constitution of the United States, document embodying the fundamental principles upon which the American republic is conducted. Drawn up at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, the Constitution was signed on Sept. 17, 1787, and ratified by the required number of states (nine) by June 21, 1788. "The federalist papers" (James Medison: private property is the backbone of liberty)- underline the constitution.
The constitution superseded the original charter of the United States in force since 1781 (see Articles of Confederation) and established the system of federal government that began to function in 1789. There are 7 articles and a preamble. 27 amendments have been adopted.
69. What parts does the US Constitution consist of?
-The preamble consists of a single sentence that introduces the document and its purpose: "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
-The remainder of the constitution consists of seven articles:
Article One describes Congress (the legislative branch) and outlines its powers and limits including the commerce clause.
Article Two describes the presidency.
Article Three describes the court system (the judicial branch), including the Supreme Court.
Article Four describes the relationship between the states and the federal government.
Article Five describes the process of amendment.
Article Six establishes the Constitution and the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land.
Article Seven describes the method of ratification.
-The Constitution has been amended 27 times since 1789, and it is likely to be further revised in the future. The most sweeping changes occurred within two years of its adoption. In that period, the first 10 amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, were added. Congress approved these amendments as a block in September 1789, and 11 states had ratified them by the end of 1791.
70. What is the Bill ofRights?
Bill of Rights - a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution-1791).
The amendments making up the Bill of Rights safeguard individual liberties. They are:
First Amendment - Freedom of speech, press, religion, peaceable assembly, and to petition the government.
Second Amendment - Right to keep and bear arms.
Third Amendment - Protection from quartering of troops.
Fourth Amendment - Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
Fifth Amendment - Due process, double jeopardy,