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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → 228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

basis of who applies firs within overall annual limits.
44. Where is the museum of immigration to the US situated? Ellis Island in New York Harbor, New York, was the gateway to a new life in the USA for over 12 million immigrants between the years 1892 and 1924. A former reception centre for immigrants during the immigration waves between 1892 and 1943 (12 million people passed through it from 1892 to 1924), it was later used (until 1954) as a detention centre for nonresidents without documentation, or for those who were being deported. Ellis Island is now a national historic site (1964) and contains the Museum of Immigration (1989).
45. What were the reasons why people at different times left their home countries for America? Search of better life, political and religious persecution, new lands, etc
46. What have the immigrants always been seeking in the US? Wealth, land and freedom - a better life.
47. What was the port of entry for the immigrants in the past? 1892 -the government opened a special port of entry in New York harbor, Ellis Island.
48. What do you know about the Statue of Liberty?
The Statue of Liberty National Monument officially celebrated her 100th birthday on October 28, 1986. The people of France gave the Statue to the people of the United States over one hundred years ago in recognition of the friendship established during the American Revolution. Over the years, the Statue of Liberty has grown to include freedom and democracy as well as this international friendship. Located on 12-acre Liberty Island in New York Harbor.
Sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was commissioned to design a sculpture with the year 1876 in mind for completion, to commemorate the centennial of the American Declaration of Independence.
The Statue of Liberty began lightning the way for new arrivals just at a time when native-born Americans began worrying that the US was being overrun by immigrants.
49. What American states suffer most of all from illegal immigration? US-Mexican border
Texas, California, Florida from Mexico, Latin America, Cuba, Gaiety.
50. What problems are created by illegal immigrants in the US? Crime; illegal immigration holds down the pay of American workers: ultra-cheap laborers (illegal immigrants) are unlikely to complain about their abysmal pay, lack of benefits or unpleasant working conditions; illegal immigrants are not just underpaid; they are very likely to suffer work-related disabilities which are not covered by insurance. They often do not have a place to live. Since they usually do not get any benefits, their care increasingly has become the responsibility of the state government.
51. Give the English for "біженець; шукати політичного притулку; підданий іншої країни, що мешкає в державі". Refugee, asylum seeker, to seek asylum, alien (legal/illegal).
52. Comment on the expression "the melting pot".
The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures and religions) are combined so as to lose their discrete identities and yield a final product of uniform consistency and flavor, which is quite different from the original inputs.
The melting pot idea is most strongly associated with the United States, particularly in reference to "model" immigrant groups of the past. Past generations of immigrants in America, it is argued by some, became successful by working to shed their historic identities and adopt the ways of their new country. The process of shedding one's native culture and becoming absorbed into the ways of the "host" society is known as assimilation.
Melting pot vs. multiculturalism (metaphors - "a bowl of salad", "pizza").
53. Give the names of some ethnic or national communities in the US. Chinese, Jewish, Russian, Italian, etc
54. Is it possible to single out any specific traits of character typical of Americans as a nation? What are they?
Key terms: efficiency, time is money, individualism, self-reliance, loneliness, conformity, the status-seekers..
55. When is North America believed to have been visited by Europeans for the first time? Who were those first visitors? Who was their leader?
Icelandic Vikings -the first Europeans who came to the USA 1000 years ago (Leif Ericson - leader). Traces of their visit - Newfoundland. But they did not establish a permanent settlement and soon left the continent.
56. When was America discovered by Christopher Columbus? What national holiday commemorates this event?
The demand for Asian spices, textiles, and dyes spurred European navigators to dream of shorter routes between East and West. Acting on behalf of the Spanish crown, in 1492 the Italian navigator Christopher Columbus sailed west from Europe and landed on one of the Bahama Islands in the Caribbean Sea. Within 40 years, Spanish adventurers had carved out a huge empire in Central and South America. Columbus day - holiday commemorating Christopher Columbus's discovery of America, it is celebrated on the Monday nearest to Oct. 12.
In recent years, the holiday has been rejected by many people who view it as a celebration of conquest and genocide. In its place, Indigenous Peoples Day is celebrated.
57. When was the first British-American settlement founded in North America? What was its name?
The first successful English colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. A few years later, English Puritans came to America to escape religious persecution for their opposition to the Church of England.
First permanent British settlement in North America - New England. In New England the Puritans hoped to build a "city upon a hill" -- an ideal community. Ever since, Americans have viewed their country as a great experiment, a worthy model for other nations to follow.
58. When did the first big group of British protestant settlers arrive in North America? What was the name of the ship they sailed on? What was the name of the colony they founded?
"Mayflower", 102p. In 1620, the Puritans founded Plymouth Colony in what later became Massachusetts.
59. What names can you use to refer to the first British settlers? Pilgrims, the Pilgrim fathers, Puritans.
60. What does the expression "Pilgrim Fathers" mean?
The founders of Plymouth Colony. The name Pilgrim Fathers is given to those members who made the first crossing on the Mayflower. They are considered to be the fathers of the nation.Those people traveled a long distance to be able to worship.
61. What holiday dates back to the first big group of British protestant settlers in Norm America?
The Pilgrims were unprepared for the starvation and sickness of a harsh New England winter and nearly half died before spring. Yet, persevering in prayer, and assisted by helpful Indians, they reaped a bountiful harvest the following summer. The grateful Pilgrims then declared a three-day feast, starting on December 13, 1621,