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228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. The term most often appears in the form politically correct or PC, and is generally used mockingly or disparagingly. One stated aim of politically correct language is to prevent the exclusion or the offending of people because of their differences or handicaps.
When used this way, it often targets advocates of certain forms of identity politics, including gay rights, feminism, multiculturalism and the disability rights movement. The use of "gender-neutral" terms to describe occupations ("fire-fighter" instead of "fireman," "chairperson" instead of "chairman," etc.), for example, might be referrred to as "political correctness" to characterize its proponents as overly sensitive or even coercive.
In the United States over the course of one hundred years, blacks became Negroes, then became blacks again, then became Afro-Americans, then became African-Americans (the current term). In the meantime, the term "colored" came into and went out of usage, while the related term "people of color" came into usage later on.
Eskimo, a word that has long been viewed as pejorative by the people it refers to, has increasingly been replaced by more specific terms (for example, Inuit, Yupik, and Aleut).
Indians became Native Americans or Indigenous People in the United States. American Indian and Amerindian are also gaining popularity. Similarly, they became known in Canada as First Nations or aboriginal peoples.
Caucasian (used in place of White). People of Color (used to describe people of certain ethnicities, including Whites of Hispanic origin).
35. What designations are there for different generation groups in the US?
Woodstock generation - in 1969 there was a huge rock-music festival in the field which could be attended by a lot of people (hippies)
Baby Boomers - people who were born during 1945-1964 - the period of increased birthrate
Xers - the nowadays population
36. What people are called "baby-boomers"? Baby boomers -people who were born during the period of increased burth rate - 1945-64. As is often the case with a large war, the elation of victory and large numbers of returning males to their country triggered a baby boom after the end of World War II in many countries around the globe, notably those of Europe, Asia, North America and Australasia.
37. Comment on the word "Wasp".
38. WASP - a white person of Anglo-Saxon ancestry who belongs to a Protestant denomination.
WASP is an acronym which stands for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. The term is generally considered to have been coined by E. Digby Baltzell as a convenient shorthand in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy & Caste in America. (An E. B. Palmore is also credited with defining it in a 1962 journal article.)
It should be noted that the term is tautological, as all Anglo-Saxons, by definition, are "white". Also, strictly speaking, it does not apply to many, perhaps even most people called "WASPs", as they are not descended from Angles, Saxons, or members of closely-related tribes.
The term, as used in the United States, generally describes a class of wealthy whites with ties to colonial America, who often have a certain amount of social standing and may or may not be part of the Establishment. The Northern European denominations of Christianity probably encompassed by the WASP idea include Episcopal (Anglican), Presbyterian, Lutheran, Methodist, Congregationalist (Puritan), Dutch Reformed, Quaker, Northern Baptist and Southern Baptist, et al.
In contemporary use, the term is usually used to denote wealthier, educated Protestants, often in the context of high society, prep school, or Ivy League-level college educations. The term, when used this way, is most often applied to the New England and the Northeast. Also: preppy.
Preppy is a term in the popular vocabulary, traditionally used to describe the characteristics of patrician, White, Anglo-Saxon Protestants (usually with some personal or familial connection to New England; e.g. WASP) who attend or attended major private, secondary preparatory schools. These characteristics include particular subcultural speech, vocabulary, accent, dress, mannerisms, etiquette, and general way of being.
38. Name some of the biggest waves of immigration to the US.
1604,1607 Europe (France, England, Holland, Sweden, Germany) -people seeking wealth, land and freedom - a better life.
1620 England -pilgrims in search of religious freedom.
1775-1783 Holland, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Scotland.
1619-1808 Africa - people brought unwillingly as slaves.
1840-1860 Europe - famine, poor crops, rising populations, political unrest.
1845-1850 Ireland -famine, poor potato crops.
1861-1865 Germany - the federal government encouraged immigration by offering grants of land to those who would serve as troops in the armies of the North.
1880's-1925 Italy, Greece + Eastern Europe (Jews who suffered from fierce pogroms - massacres).
After 1945 Europe- refugees who were uprooted by the horrors of war.
1956-1969 Hungary, Czech Republic - after the Soviet Unio crushed the attempt to establish a non-communist government.
1959 Cuba - after Fidel Castro took control of Cuba.
1975-1980s Cuba, Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Cambodia, The Lao People's Democratic Republic - political refugees + economical refugees.
1990s Ireland, Canada, Poland, Indonesia - skilled workers and professionals.
1990s Bangladesh, Pakistan, Peru, Egypt, Tobago - "diversity visas".
1990s - The Soviet Union, Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan etc - refugees, fear of persecution.
39. What were the reasons of a big immigration wave from Ireland in the middle of the 1911'century?
1845-1850 Ireland -famine, poor potato crops.
40. What attracted many Germans who came to the US during the Civil War?
1861-1865 Germany - the federal government encouraged immigration by offering grants of land to those who would serve as troops in the armies of the North.
41. When and why did the massive Jewish immigration to the US begin?
1880's-1925 Eastern Europe -Jews who suffered from fierce pogroms (massacres).
42. Have there been any examples of unwilling immigration to the US?
1619-1808 Africa -500000 people were brought to the colonies unwillingly as slaves. 1808- importing slaves became a crime.
43. Give examples of the laws passed by the US Congress to limit the number of immigrants.
1882 - the US government banned mostChinese immigration. Other Asians were refused to entry as well.
1924 The Reed-Johnson immigration act (set limits on how many people from each foreign country would be permitted to immigrate.)
1965 - a new law signed by President Johnson ended the old system of immigration. No more consideration of peoples' country of origin, the USA has accepted immigrants strictly on the