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228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

Minnesota. Flowing due south, it is joined by two main tributaries, the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Ohio at Cairo, Illinois. Below Cairo, the Mississippi swells into a powerful waterway, often 4,500 feet across. It drains more than a million miles of land as it flows 2,348 miles south to empty into the Gulf of Mexico at New Orleans.
19. Give the names of the biggest and most important rivers in the US. The Mississippi, the Missouri, the Yukon, the Rio Grande, the Ohio, the Columbia, the St. Lawrence, the Arkansas, the Colorado.
20. What river does Washington, D.C. stand on? The Columbia River.
21. What rivers wash Manhattan in New York City? The East River, the Harlem River, and the Hudson River.
22. What are the two biggest mountain systems in the US? The Appalachian mountain, the Rocky Mountains.
23. What is the name of the mountain system which takes up the Western part of the
US territory? Rocky Mountains.
24. Give the names of the Great Lakes. Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario.
25. What are the biggest lakes in the US? Michigan, Iliamna, Okeechobee, Becharof, Red Lake.
26. Give the names of some well-known capes in the US. Cape Cod (New England), Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout (North Carolina), Cape Canaveral (Florida).
27. Give the English for: Скелясті гори, Ніагарський водоспад, Мексиканська
затока, Арканзас, Ілінойс. The Rocky Mountains, The Niagara Falls, The Gulf of Mexico, Arkansas, Illinois.
28. Give the names of as many National Parks in the US as you can. The Yellowstone Park (Wyoming), the Grand Canyon NP (Arizona), the Petrified Forest NP (Arizona), the Yosemite NP (California), the Sequoia NP (California), the Everglades NP (Florida), the Zion NP (Utah).
29. Say a few words about the climate in the US.
The climate varies along with the landscape, from tropical in Hawaii and southern Florida to tundra in Alaska and atop some of the highest mountains. Most of the North and East experience a temperate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters. Most of the American South experiences a subtropical humid climate with mild winters and long, hot, humid summers. Rainfall decreases markedly from the humid forests of the Eastern Great Plains to the semiarid shortgrass prairies on the High Plains abutting the Rocky Mountains. Arid deserts, including the Mojave, extend through the lowlands and valleys of the American Southwest from westernmost Texas to California and northward throughout much of Nevada. Some parts of the American West, including San Francisco, California, have a Mediterranean climate. Rain forests line the windward mountains of the Pacific Northwest from Oregon to Alaska.
30. What branches of industry and agriculture are highly developed in the US?
Illustrate your answer with the names of regions and cities.
The country has rich mineral resources, with extensive gold, oil, coal, and uranium deposits. Successful farm industries rank the country among the top producers of, among others, corn, wheat, sugar, and tobacco. The U.S. manufacturing sector produces, among other things, cars, airplanes, and electronics. The largest industry is now service, which employs roughly three-quarters of U.S. residents.
Economic activity varies greatly from one part of the country to another, with many industries being largely dependent on a certain city or region; New York City is the center of the American financial, publishing, broadcasting, and advertising industries; Silicon Valley is the country's primary location for high technology companies, while Los Angeles is the most important center for film production. The Midwest is known for its reliance on manufacturing and heavy industry, with Detroit serving as the center of the American automotive industry; the Great Plains are known as "the breadbasket of America" for their tremendous agricultural output, while Texas is largely associated with the oil industry; the Southeastern U.S. is a major hub for medical research, as well as many of the nation's textiles manufacturers.
31. What is the population of the US? 296,428,342 (according to the National Census Bureau)
32. What ethnic groups make up the population in the US? White people (Caucasians, 63%), Hispanics (Latinos, 12,5%), Black people (Afro-Americans, 12,3%), People of Asian origin (Asian Americans 3,6), American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts (Native born Americans, American Indians, came from Asia, Siberia to Alaska through the Bering's strait (Берингов пролив) 20000 ago). Nomadic tribes (кочевые племена).
According to the 2000 census, the United States has 37 ethnic groups with at least one million people each.
33. How can the majority and minority groups be defined in the US?
In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. Minority only makes sense in the context of a unified society or group. This can be used to refer to people of a different language, nationality, religion, culture, lifestyle or any characteristic, provided these people are accepted as part of the referent group.
In recent decades the term minority has taken on a new meaning among the politically correct, being used to refer to a group with which they perceive to be worthy of special preferential treatment. For instance, while numerically women outnumber men in most societies, they can be said in politically correct terms to be a minority, given their claim of inferior treatment compared to men.
A majority is a sub-group that outnumbers non-members in any particular group, or, in the politically correct sense of the word, has traditionally higher social status, e.g. white male Protestants in the USA.
The majority of the 296 million people currently living in the United States descend from European immigrants who have arrived since the establishment of the first colonies. Major components of the European segment of the United States population are descended from immigrants from Germany (23 percent), Ireland (16 percent), England (13 percent), Scotland, The Netherlands and Italy (6 percent), with many immigrants also coming from Scandinavian or Slavic countries. Other significant immigrant populations came from eastern and southern Europe and French Canada; few immigrants came directly from France.
Likewise, while there were few immigrants directly from Spain, Hispanics from Mexico and South and Central America are considered the largest minority group in the country. Other ethnic minority groups: African Americans (many of whom are descendants of the enslaved Africans brought to the U.S. between the 1620s and 1807),Asian American population (most of whom areconcentrated on the West Coast), the aboriginal population of Native Americans, such as American Indians and Inuit.
34. Comment on the politically correct use of the vocabulary when speaking about ethnicity and race in the US.
Political correctness is the