1963 - "The Feminine Mystique" by Betty Friedan - laid the foundation of feminism!
202. What is the essence of the feminist movement?
The basis of feminist ideology is that rights, privilege, status and obligations should not be determined by gender.
Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. While generally providing a critique of social relations, many proponents of feminism also focus on analyzing gender inequality and the promotion of women's rights, interests, and issues. EQUAL CHANCES IN LIFE!
Feminist theory aims to understand the nature of inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations and sexuality. Feminist political activism campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, discrimination and sexual violence. Themes explored in feminism include discrimination, stereotyping, objectification (especially sexual objectification), oppression and patriarchy.
203. In what way has the feminist movement influenced the use of English?
Feminists are often proponents of using non-sexist language, using "Ms." to refer to both married and unmarried women, for example, or the ironic use of the term "herstory" instead of "history". Feminists are also often proponents of using gender-inclusive language, such as "humanity" instead of "mankind", or "he or she" in place of "he" where the gender is unknown. Feminists in most cases advance their desired use of language either to promote an equal and respectful treatment of women or to affect the tone of political discourse. This can be seen as a move to change language which has been viewed by some feminists as imbued with sexism - providing for example the case in the English language the word for the general pronoun is "he" or "his" (The child should have his paper and pencils), which is the same as the masculine pronoun (The boy and his truck). These feminists purport that language then directly affects perception of reality (compare Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis). However, to take a postcolonial analysis of this point, many languages other than English may not have such a gendered pronoun instance and thus changing language may not be as important to some feminists as others. Yet, English is becoming more and more universal, and the issue of language may be seen to be of growing importance.
chairman > chair or chairperson
police man > police officer
foreman > supervisor
It is quite common to see the female forms spokeswoman, chairwoman, police woman etc. However, some people object to these words also, because they draw attention to the sex of the person and away from their job or function. They feel that it is not important whether the spokesperson is a man or a woman; what is important is their (his or her!) function.
man > Humans are the the most intelligent of all animals.
man-made fibres > synthetic fibres
poetess > poet
Poet is preferred for the same reasons that police officer is preferred to police woman. There is no reason at all to use the word poetess when poet can refer to both men and women.
stewardess > flight attendant
male nurse > nurse
By specifically mentioning the gender, you are implying that male nurses are the exception. Any language that unnecessarily serves to draw attention to the gender and not the function of the person is sexist.
204. What does the expression "glass ceiling" mean?
A glass ceiling is an invisible obstacle in peoples' mind, unofficial barrier to an upper management or other prominent position within a company or other organization which certain groups, particularly women, are perceived to be unable to cross, due to discrimination. The term refers to the inconspicuous nature of such barriers, compared to formal barriers to career advancement. It was originally coined by Carol Hymowitz and Timothy Schellhardt in the March 24, 1986 edition of the Wall Street Journal.
The term glass elevator is sometimes used to describe the rapid promotion of men over women, especially into management, in female-dominated fields like nursing.
205. What names have been coined in the USA to refer to the people who are against abortions and those who are allowing legal abortions? Pro-lifers and pro-choicers.
Pro-Life is the self-description for those in North America and Great Britain who are of the general political opinion that abortion, embryonic stem cell research, human cloning andother issues regarding the sanctity of life are morally wrong and should be illegal in most cases. The term was coined in the early 1960s in the United States, and refers specifically to what is believed to be the life of unborn children, the subjects of abortion.
Pro-Choice is a common self-description used by people who believe that the government should not outlaw abortion and believe that the choice of terminating pregnancy should be an option for a pregnant woman.
206. What functions do the US mass media perform?
Entertainment, interpretation, making profit, persuasion, providing a political forum, reporting the news, etc
207. What are the leading newspapers and magazines in the USA?
The top five daily newspapers by circulation in 1995 were the Wall Street Journal (1,823,207), USA Today (1,570,624), the New York Times (1,170,869), the Los Angeles Times (1,053,498), and the Washington Post (840,232). The youngest of the top five, USA Today, was launched as a national newspaper in 1982, after exhaustive research by the Gannett chain. It relies on bold graphic design, color photos, and brief articles to capture an audience of urban readers interested in news "bites" rather than traditional, longer stories.
Magazines: Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, Vanity Fair, Men's Health, Cosmopolitan, Elle, Glamour Magazine, Business Week etc
208. What is the name of the most prestigious prize in the field od journalism? Pulitzer Prize.
209. Comment on the expression "yellow journalism".
The term, as it commonly applies, refers to news organizations for whom sensationalism, profiteering, and in some cases propaganda, take dominance over factual reporting.
"Yellow journalism" may for example refer to sensationalized news reporting that bears only a superficial resemblance to journalism. Journalistic professionalism, as now understood, is the supposed antidote. I
210. What are the nicknames of New York city and Los Angeles?
New York: The Big Apple, The Capital of the World, The City that Never Sleeps, Empire City.