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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → 228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

Rights - a US law passed in 1944 to give financial help to members of the armed forces when they returned home from World War II. This included money given to help pay for homes and education. By 1947, about 4 million people had benefited from this law. It now helps anyone leaving the US armed forces.
GI - a name for a US soldier, used especially in World War II. It came originally from the letters GI meaning 'government issue' stamped on military equipment).
171. What government programme obliges university Admission Boards to give special preference to members of minority groups as part of their admission policy? The Affirmative Action Program: "to equalize education and job opportunities and make up for the past inequality by giving preference to members of minority seeking jobs or admission".
172. What is the average salary in the US?
The average annual wages in the U.S. was $36,764 for 2002. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which states that in March 2004, the average wage for workers in the private sector was around $520 a week.
173. What vocabulary units are usually used to refer to different social groups according to their incomes in the US? What role does political correctness play here?
Upper class; middle class (upper and lower); low-income, disadvantaged, ill-provided, needy- senior citizens.
174. What federal agency is responsible for controlling people's paying their taxes? The Internal Revenue Service is the nation's tax collection agency and administers the Internal Revenue Code enacted by Congress.
175. What is the deadline for paying taxes in the US? Americans must file their tax returns till April 15.
176. What kind of taxes do people in the US pay?
Virtually everybody who works in the US pays seven percent of his wages to support the Social Security Program.
P Federal tax=Income Tax (salaries, wages, tips, dividends if you hold stock)
P A Tax for the State=Sales Tax (VAT)
P A Tax for the City= Excise Tax (on property, vehicles, etc.)
177. What powers does the IRS have? What kinds of punishment are there for tax evasion?
The IRS Mission: provide America's taxpayers top quality service by helping them understand and meet their tax responsibilities and by applying the tax law with integrity and fairness to all. The IRS is organized to carry out the responsibilities of the secretary of the Treasury under section 7801 of the Internal Revenue Code. The secretary has full authority to administer and enforce the internal revenue laws and has the power to create an agency to enforce these laws. The Internal Revenue Service was created based on this legislative grant.
Tax evasion is a serious crime punishable by imprisonment, fines, and the imposition of civil penalties.
IRS HAS ACCESS TO PEOPLE'S ACCOUNTS; ONE'S PROPERTY CAN BE ARRESTED WITHOUT ANY TRIAL; invasion of privacy: Americans are very resentful to what IRS does.
178. When did the US start developing government social programmes on a large scale?
During the Great Depression, which began in 1929, because it shattered the belief that anyone who was willing to work could find a job? For the first time in history, substantial numbers of Americans were out of work because of the widespread failures of banks and businesses.
179. What is the name of the US President who started to develop government social programmes on a large scale? Franklin D. Roosevelt.
180. Why were social programmes not popular with the American people before the Great Depression?
The American economic system is based on private, free enterprise, and the "self-reliance" that writer and lecturer Ralph Waldo Emerson advocated is a virtue much valued by Americans. In fact, most make it a point of honor to take care of themselves.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, several European nations instituted public-welfare programs. But such a movement was slow to take hold in the United States because the rapid pace of industrialization and the ready availability of farmland seemed to confirm the belief that anyone who was willing to work could find a job.
181. Give the names of some social programmes.
The word "welfare" as used in American English today most commonly serves as an umbrella term for a variety of government programs that provide income support and create a social safety net for impoverished individuals and families.
Social Security ensures that retired persons receive a modest monthly income and also provides unemployment insurance, disability insurance, and other assistance to those who need it.
Welfare payments (monthly payments for people with low income), Veteran's benefits (pensions and free medical care), Job training, Food stamps (special stamps that can be used to buy food at any store), School brunches (free meals for schoolchildren from poor families), Surplus food programmes (food is distributed free of charge to the poor), Unemployment Insurance (weekly payments for up to six month while looking for a job) +public housing. Benefits (vocation money, medical insurance, retirement plans).
182. When was the Social Security programme adopted and what was its significance?
1935, it provides public assistance to the needy and is a major social welfare programme in the US.
183. How are welfare recipients regarded in American society?
They are not widely respected because of the features of American national character and the "self-reliance" notion.
Many middle-class Americans resent the use of their tax dollars to support those whom they regard (rightly or wrongly) as unwilling to work. Some critics argue that dependency on welfare tends to become a permanent condition, as one generation follows another into the system. Some people believe the system encourages young women to have children out of wedlock, because welfare payments increase with each child born. Other experts maintain that unless the root causes of poverty -- lack of education and opportunity -- are addressed, the welfare system is all that stands between the poor and utter destitution.
184. What are the names of the federal programmes under which people can receive money for medical care?
Medicaid is a joint federal-state program that funds medical care for the poor. The requirements for receiving Medicaid and the scope of care available vary widely from state to state. At a cost of about $156 thousand million a year, Medicaid is the nation's largest social-welfare program.
Medicare, another form of federal health insurance, pays a large part of the medical bills incurred by Americans who are 65 and older or who are disabled, regardless of age. Medicare is financed by a portion of the Social Security tax, by premiums paid by recipients, and by federal funds. Everyone who receives Social Security payments is covered by Medicare.
185. Which of the two main political parties is more inclined to develop welfare