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228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

Harvard university - the oldest US university and usually considered to be the best. Harvard is one of the Ivy League universities. It was established as a college in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Two years later, it was named after John Harvard, a Puritan born in England who had given it money and books. Harvard is especially famous for its faculties (=departments) of law and business. Its library is the ldest in the US and one of the largest.
155. Comment on the names "Ivy League" and "Seven Sisters".
US universities and colleges organize themselves into conferences, groups of institutions that are near each other and do certain activities, such as sports, together. The most highly respected of these groups is the Ivy League in the north-eastern US. The name Ivy League comes from the ivy that grows on the old buildings of the colleges. Ivy League institutions have a very high academic reputation, and many more people want to attend them than are able to. They are very expensive, with tuition costing well over 20 000$ at some universities, although scholarships are available to help students who cannot pay for themselves. People who are educated at the Ivy League have a good chance of finding a well-paid job, and many political leaders have been to Ivy League universities. Many other colleges and universities in the US offer a high standard of education, but none has the status and the prestige of the Ivy League institutions.
1) Brown University
2) Columbia University
3) Cornell University
4) Dartmouth University
5) Harvard University
6) University of Pennsylvania
7) Princeton University
8) Yale University
The Seven Sisters are the seven oldest and most respected women's colleges.
1) Bernard College
2) Bryn Mawr College
3) Mount Holyoke College
4) Radcliffe College
5) Smith College
6) Vassar College
7) Wellesley College
156. Give the names of some of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the US.
Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth University, Harvard University, University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, Yale University, Bernard College, Bryn Mawr College, Mount Holyoke College, Radcliffe College, Smith College, Vassar College, Wellesley College
157. What famous higher schools are situated in Cambridge, Mass.?
Harvard, Radcliffe College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
158. What factors determine the popularity and prestige of the US universities?
More popular and prestigious institutions are generally - not always - more costly to attend, and having graduated from one of them brings distinct advantages as the individual seeks employment opportunities and social mobility within the society.
159. What are the sources of income for public and private universities in the US?
You have to pay everywhere, whether it is a public institution or a private one.
- students' tuition
- endowments by benefactors
- government funding
160. Comment on the use of the word "college" in American English.
In the USA, there is no consistent distinction between the terms "college" and "university". The general tendency, however, is to call a college a higher educational institution offering mainly courses of instruction leading to the Bachelor's degree; a university is a college or a group of colleges or departments under one control offering courses of instruction leading not only to the Bachelor's degree but also to the Master's and the Doctor's degree. The term "college" is also sometimes loosely applied to institutions which are actually only secondary schools.
161. What task do two-year colleges fulfill? What other names are used to refer to this type of school?
A two-year college, a community college, a junior college.
It costs much less to go to a community college than to go to the university. Many students study there for two years before going to a university to do the final two years of a degree course. Other students who go to a community college do not intend to go to universities, and study practical subjects that will help them get a job. Working people also attend community colleges to improve their knowledge and skills.
162. What degrees do American universities confer upon their students?
Bachelor's degree, Master's degree, Doctor's degree.
163. What terms are used to refer to a) the students seeking a Bachelor's degree, b) the students seeking a Master's degree, c) the students seeking a Doctor's degree?
a) Undergraduates (undergraduate program leads to the Bachelor's degree; Bachelor's degree - the first degree that you get when you stud at the university).
b) Graduates (graduate program leads to the Master's degree; Master's degree - a higher degree at US universities, usually requiring one more year of study. It is between a Bachelor's degree and doctorate).
c) Graduates (graduate program leads to the Doctor's degree; Doctorate - the highest type of university degree)
164. Mow long does one have to study to obtain their a) Bachelor's degree, b) Master's degree?
Bachelor - 4 years
Master - plus 2 or 3 more years
165. What names are used to refer to the teaching positions atAmerican universities?
teacher instructor (аспірант)
professor's position:
- assistant professor (старший викладач)
- associate professor (доцент)
- full professor (професор)
166. Give the English for "гуртожиток, бакалавр, магістр, аспірант, оцінка, доцент, факультет".
Dormitory, Bachelor, holder of Master's degree, a Post-Graduate student, grade, associate professor, department
167. Comment on the use of the term "tenure" in the US system of education.
Tenure - a lifetime contract at school or college, usually given after a fixed number of years. A typical career at academia (a sphere of activity, connected with research and teaching in universities):
- Doctor of Philosophy
- Apply for a post-graduate course (2-3)
- Apply for assistant professor (5-7) (a tenure track position)
- Get tenure
- Get full professor
"Dead wood" - people who stopped working on scientific research
168. What does the word "alumni" mean? Give other forms of this word.
Alumni - a former student of a school, college or university.
Alumnus, alumna, alumni, alumnae
169. When did women start getting higher education in the US?
In the mid-XIX c. (1837) women were admitted at Oberlin College, Ohio.
1841 - obtained degrees. This led to the spread of women colleges throughout the country.
170. When was the Servicemen's Readjustment Act adopted and what did it mean to the US universities? How else was it called?
1944 - the Service Readjustment Act adopted. When soldiers were coming back home from the war, they had to readjust to normal life. The government gave them money, scholarships. College education became widespread available.
(The GI Bill