141. What is the structure of the government on the state level?
State government is similar in its organization to federal, or national government. Each state has its own written constitution (=set of fixed laws) and has different laws, which explain the powers of the three branches of state government. There are sometimes great differences in law between the different states concerning things such as property, crime, health and education. The highest elected official of each state is the Governor, and the person beneath him or her is called the lieutenant governor. Each state also has one or two elected institutions that make laws, known as state legislatures, which usually have two hoses, a senate and a House of Representatives (though the names can be different in some states), whose members represent the different parts of the state. The judicial branch usually consists of a state supreme court and several lower courts.
US states have traditionally had many powers and considerable direct influence on the lives of other citizens. State government has the greatest influence over people's daily lives. State governments organize their own system of courts and set local income tax and sales tax. They decide at what age residents can, for example, drink alcohol or get married, and what students must study at school. Even actions that are illegal in all or most states are the subject of laws at the state rather than the federal level. For example, murder is illegal everywhere in the US but every state has its own law against murder, and the punishment for the crime is different in every state.
142. Comment on the meaning of the terms "separation of powers" and "the system of checks and balances". Illustrate what you say with examples.
The main principles of the government. Розподіл влади, система втримань та переваг.
By dividing power among the three branches of government, the Constitution effectively ensures that the government power will not be usurped by a small powerful group of a few leaders.
The basic framework of American government is described in the Constitution. However, there are other features of the political system, not mentioned the in the Constitution, which directly and indirectly influence American politics.
Groups and individuals have a variety of ways they can exert pressure and try to influence government policy. Many people write letters to elected officials expressing their approval or disapproval of a political person. People sometimes circulate petitions or write letters to editors of newspapers and magazines to try to influence politicians. Organized interest groups, however, can generally exert influence much more effectively than can isolated individuals.
- Congress must approve presidential appointments; it controls the budget; it can pass laws over the president's veto; it can impeach and remove the president from the office
- The president can veto congressional legislation; may propose legislation to the Congress
- Chief Justice presides over impeachment of president; may prevent executive action through injunction
- The Court can declare presidential acts unconstitutional
- The president appoints judges
- Congress can change laws; initiate a constitutional amendment; restrict jurisdiction of courts to hear certain types of cases; create whole new court system or abolish existing ones; expand or contract times and places that federal courts sit
- The senate must confirm the president's judicial appointments; Congress can impeach and remove judges from office; the Court can declare laws unconstitutional
143. Give the English for "помічник президента, Верховний Суд, вступити на посаду, попереді (первині) вибори."
The President's aide, the Supreme Court, to take the office, the primary elections (the primaries).
144. Is there a national system of education in the US? What does this mean?
The USA does not have a national system of education. It is the matter for people of each state.
145. What types of schools according to ownership are there in the US?
Public schools (85%) - supported by taxpayers. Have boards of education (policy makers for schools) at the state and/or district level, by which spending id guided. The same thing is true for decisions about the school curriculum, teaching standards and certification, and the overall measurement of students' progress.
Private schools (15%) - supported by special attendance fee. Use the fees they collect as they think best. The same thing is true for decisions about the school curriculum, teaching standards and certification, and the overall measurement of students' progress.
4 out of 5 private schools are run by churches, synagogues or other religious groups. 1 out of 5 is run by different business.
146. Is religion an obligatory subject at American schools?
It can be obligatory only in private schools. In public schools - never.
147. What patterns of schooling are there in the US?
1) Nursery school (optional)
3) Elementary school (grades 1 through 8). But in some places, the elementary school includes only grades 1 to 6. And sometimes grades 4, 5, 6 make up what iscalled a "middle grade" school (many Americans refer to the elementary grades as "grammar school").
4) Secondary/high school (grades 9 to 12): "junior high school" 7, 8, 9; "senior high school" 10, 11 12
6) Graduate school
148. Comment on the school curricula.
All 50 states have their own law regulating education. From state to state, some laws are similar, some are different. Curriculum: obligatory/core subjects (language arts, science, mathematics, history, geography, social studies, physical studies, penmanship, music, art)
149. Comment on the term "electives".
Electives are subjects, which students can choose. Mostly they are not very serious, not academic. (shop - труды)
150. In what meanings can the word "grade" be used when talking about education in the US?
151. What is the most common way to check the schoolchildren's knowledge in the US?
American students are very seldom asked to tell the subject in class. They usually write tests (multiple choice, matching etc.)
152. What is the English for "(круглий) oвідмінник"?
A straight A student
153. Give the British and American English for "директор школи, державна школа, приватна школа, оцінка, клас".
BrE: headmaster, state school, public school, mark, form
AmE: principal, public school, private school, grade, grade/year
154. What is the oldest US university and when was it founded? Where is it