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ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → 228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

(коллегия выборщиков)
120. What way does a Bill have to go through to become an act of law?
Both senators and Representatives can introduce a bill (to put forward, to propose the bill - внести законопроект на рассмотрение).
The bill goes to the committee of the same House:
- is heard (to call a hearing)
- is studied, analyzed, improved
- is amended
- each committee sifts and sorts the bill
- some of them are rejected (to defeat the bill - отклонить законопроект)
- is sent back to the full house without a recommendation or amendment
- some are tabled (на время откладываются)
- after that the bill is voted on where it is introduced
- moved to another house and studied in its committee
- moved to "conference committee"
- moved to the President for approval (the President can veto the bill, then the bill goes back to the Congress which votes on the bill once more. The Congress can overrule/override the President's veto. In this case the President is obliged to sign the bill
121. Who presides over the House of Representatives?
The Speaker is in charge of the House of Representatives. He always belongs to the party which has the majority of places. (Pency Penny policy)
122. Who presides over the Senate?
Vice President
123. Who is the executive branch of power vested in the US?
The President, the Vice President and the President's Cabinet represent the executive branch of power.
124. What happens if the US President is for any reason unable to finish his term? Were there any such cases in the 20th century?
If the President is unable for any reasons to finish his term, the Vice President takes his office.
1900 - William McKinley elected. 1901 - shot dead. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became the President.
1944 - elected for the fourth time, Franklin D. Roosevelt died. Vice President Harry Truman became the President.
1963 - John Fitzgerald Kennedy assassinated. Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson became the President.
125. What are the duties of the US President?
1) with consent of the Senate appoints higher officials: the Cabinet members, ambassadors, federal judges
2) has the initiative if foreign affairs (! the Senate can break the treaty that the President negotiated, but cannot make a treaty or force the President to make one)
3) is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
4) leader of the legislation
5) the President outlines the course of his administration through his message to Congress
6) has the right of veto: the President is able to reject the bill unless Congress by 2/3 vote of each house shall overrule him.
126. What are the duties of the Vice-President?
1) duties are indefinite (nobody knows them)
2) elected together with the President for four years
3) presides over the Senate (votes only in case of tie)
4) takes the President's office if he is unable to finish his term
"The forgotten man of the American politics"
"Superfluous Excellency" - Лишнее Превосходительство
127. What important speeches does the US President make during his term of office?
Inaugural Address +
1) The Annual state of the Union Message (про стан внутрішніх справ у країні)
2) The Annual budget message
3) The Annual economic report
128. What is the name of the President's residence? Where is it situated?
The White House is the official home of the President, on Pennsylvania Avenue, in Washington, D.C.
129. Who are the members of the President's Cabinet?
The members of the Cabinet are the heads of the government departments, such as the country's department of education or department of transportation. There are 14 executive departments nowadays, but their figure is changeable - every president can change the number that exists.
130. What is the Ukrainian counterpart of the US "Secretary of State"?
Minister of Foreign Affairs - Державний секретар (Condolisa Rise)
131. What is the American English for "Міністр юстиції, міністр оборони, міністр фінансів".
Attorney General - John Ashcroft (Minister of Justice), Secretary of Defense - Donald Ransfeld (Minister of Defense), Secretary of the Treasury - John Show (Minister of Finance).
132. What term is used to refer to the formal accusation against a public official by a legislative body in case he commits high crime? Has this procedure ever been used against any of the US Presidents?
Impeachment. Only Representatives are able to suggest the impeachment, only Senators are able to trial the impeachment. The procedure is the same as in the court.
Andrew Johnson (1808-1875) - technically impeached on a minor problem: soft policy against the South. Found not guilty by only one vote.
Richard Nixon (1913-1994) - was accused of using "bugs" to win the election campaign. In 1974, faced with almost certain impeachment, Nixon resigned.
Bill Clinton (1946) - accused of lying under the oath (perjury), obstruction of justice.
A.J., B.C. - went through the whole procedure of impeachment.
! No president has ever been impeached in the US
133. How is the date of presidential elections determined?
The Election Day - the legally chosen for national elections, which is the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, in even years. The Presidents are elected every four years.= every leap year.
134. Comment on the terms "voters" and "electors".
Voters - избиратели
Electors - выборщики
The elections are indirect andhave two stages:
1) election of electors ("Election Day")
2) electors elect: the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December
135. What is the name used to refer to the body of all the electors in the US?
The whole body of electors - the Electoral College (коллегия выборщиков)
136. What are "the primaries"?
The first stage of elections: candidates from the same party compete. Open/ closed, then caucus (партийный съезд). Primary elections (primaries) - предварительные выборы (первинні).
137. When does the newly elected President come into office?
The term of office begins at noon on January, 20th, every four years.
138. What is the name of the ceremony of the President's coming into office? What does this ceremony consist of?
Inauguration Day - the day an American President is inaugurated, which is always on January 20. There is usually a parade and the new President makes a speech about what he plans for the US.
139. Give the names of the current US President, Vice-President and State Secretary.
George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, Condolisa Rise
140. What is the highest judicial body in the US, and what is its main function?
US have the dual court system: a federal judiciary, 50 states judiciaries.
The federal judiciary: The Supreme Court and System of federal courts.
Duty: to decide whether laws passed by the Congress and treaties between the US and foreign countries agree with the