Affirmative action (US English), or positive discrimination (British English), is a policy or a program providing advantages for people of a minority group who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against, with the aim of creating a more egalitarian society. This consists of preferential access to education, employment, health care, or social welfare.
The most prominent clergyman in the civil rights movement was Martin Luther King, Jr. Time magazine's 1964 "Man of the Year" was a man of the people. His tireless personal commitment to and strong leadership role in the black freedom struggle won him worldwide acclaim and the Nobel Peace Prize.
105. What expression is usually used to refer to the famous speech made by Martin Luther King at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. in 1963? "I have a dream".
106. Describe the US national flag.
"The Stars and Stripes and Old Glory", was adopted in 1777 ("усыпанное звёздами знамя").
It consists of 13 horizontal stripes alterably red and white equal to the number of the original states with a blue union marked with white stars equal in number to 50 states today.
The red stripes - courage
The white stripes - liberty
The field of blue - loyalty
107. Describe the US coat-of-arms.
The baled (білоголовий) eagle with wings outspread, holding a bundle of rods (пучок різок) - the symbol of administering (управління) in the left claw and an olive twig - the emblem of love in the right claw.
"E Pluribus Unum" - One out of may (a motto on the coat of arms).
108. What formal and informal symbols does the US have?
The Statue of Liberty - a statue of a woman on Liberty Island, in New York harbor, given to the US by France in 1884 to celebrate the American and French revolutions. The woman is holding up a torch in her right hand and represents freedom. The words written at the base of the statue are famous and well-known to most Americans.
The Liberty Bell - a bell, kept in Philadelphia, in the US state of Pennsylvania, which was rung on July 8th, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War to tell people of the Declaration of Independence from Britain. Because of this, the bell became a symbol of Liberty for the US. In 1846 it cracked when it was rung to celebrate the birthday of George Washington, and it could not be repaired.
109. What are the popular names of the US national flag?
Nickname - "Uncle Sam", appeared in 1812 (Uncle Sam Wilson of New York supplied beef to the US Army during the war of 1812)
110. What are the names of the two main political parties in the US? What are their symbols?
The Democratic Party - donkey
The Republican Party - elephant
(Thomas Nast, a famous cartoonist, made these images in mid-XX c.)
111. What does the abbreviation GOP stand for? What does the word "GOPster" mean?
GOP - the Grand Old Party (the Republican Party)
A GOPster - a member of the Republican Party
112. When were the main political parties formed?
The Democratic Party (1828) evolved from the party of Thomas Jefferson, formed before 1800 (more liberal). South.
The Republican Party was established in the 1854 by Abraham Lincoln and others who opposed the expansion of slavery into new states when being admitted to the Union (more conservative). North.
113. What political party do the current President and Vice-President belong to?
George W. Bush - the President
Dick (Richard) Cheney - the Vice President
114. Comment on the differences between the main political parties in the US?
The Democratic Party ("the party of a small guy", a Robin Hood's policy, Communists' policy):
- strong emphasis on the government
- encourage private enterprise
- creating and supporting social programs, help the poor, thus raise the taxes
- reform healthcare system, insurances
- to ban the right to own firearms
- prochoicers - women can choose whether to do abortions or not
The Republican Party ("the party of the rich men"):
- not always supporting social programs
- want to cut taxes
- give freedom to businesses
- against reform healthcare system, insurances
- to keep the right to own firearms
- prolifers - against abortions
115. What are the three branches of power in the US government?
116. What is the highest legislative body in the US? What is its task?
The Congress is the highest legislative body in the US. Its tasks are:
1) make laws
2) raise money by means of taxes or borrowings
3) make rules for trade with foreign countries and between states
4) set up post offices and federal courts below the US Supreme court
5) organize the Armed Forces
6) declare war
117. What are the names of the lower and upper chambers of the US Congress?
The Senate - the upper house, the House of Representatives - the lower house
118. How many members does each of the two houses of the Congress consist of?
The Senate - 100 members (two from each state)
The House of Representatives - 435 members (the number of state representatives depends on the population of the state; at least one representative)
119. Say a few words about the terms of office of Representatives and Senators and about congressional elections.
The Senators: elected to six-year term, at least 30 years old, a citizen of the US for at least 9 years, a resident of the state, chosen by a majority of voters.
The Representatives: elected to two-year term, at least 25 years old, a citizenof the US for at least 7 years, a resident of the state.
Elections: every even year. The election campaign starts a year before the elections. Number of electors - 538 persons (100 Senators, 435 Representatives, 3 for District of Columbia). The elections are indirect and have two stages:
1) election of electors ("Election Day"): the first Tuesday following the first Monday in November (the date determined by Congress)
2) electors elect: the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December
The "winner-take-all" system: if population of the state gives votes to the candidate of a definite party, he gets 100% votes of the people.
Electors don't gather together to give their votes. They stay in capital cities of the states they represent and just send their votes to Washington, D.C.
Voters elect electors - Избиратели выбирают выборщиков
Voters - избиратели
Polling stations - избирательные участки
Ballet - бюллетень
Nominee - кандидат
To cast a vote - отдать свой голос
To drop a ballet - кидать бюллетень
A ballet box - урна
Primary elections (primaries) - предварительные выборы (первинні)
Returns of election - результаты выборов
Term of office - срок пребывания на должности
The whole body of electors - the Electoral College