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228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка) - Реферат

Іноземна мова
228 відповідей на питання з американістики (шпаргалка)
Для тих, хто вивчає American Studies (поглиблено) в КНУ Шевченка (Інститут Філології) а також всіх інших, хто готується до екзамену. 228 відповідей на питання з Американістики. Джерела - он-лайн енцикопедії, the Potrtait of the USA, конспекти лекцыъ Шевченко Н.Б.
1. What factors caused the changes that made American English different from
British English?
Will for self-identification, influence of other languages, distance between the countries
2. What differences are there in British and American English? Differences in grammar, pronunciation and spelling.
3. What differences in pronunciation are there in British and American English?
American English not do not have as much as rises and falls as in British English, voices have higher pitch, , they are nasalized, "r" is pronounced always, t/d a bit voiced, etc.
British English American English
Ary (stressed!) temporary
Ory territory, laboratory
Able amicable, hospitable, formidable
a er courage, nourish, flourish, current, hurry
e ei semi-, anti-, multi-
privacy, vitamins, either, neither, leisure
4. Comment on the term "Americanism" and give examples of Americanisms in
-originate from America (are pointed in dictionaries if they have British variant)
-vocabulary units which can be used in all English-speaking countries.
Tomahawk, moccasin, wigwam, ranch, tornado, coyote;
Minister - secretary
Car - automobile
Secondary school - high school
Biscuits - cookies
Flat - apartment
Form - grade
Lift - elevator
Post - mail
Pavement - sidewalk
Lorry - truck
Tram - street-car
Petrol - gasoline
Wash up - do the dishes
Wash your hands - wash up
5. Comment on the differences between British and American grammar.
- Past Simple is used more often than Present Perfect (to introduce a recent happening; give new information; with just, already, yet)
- I've got= I have; Have you got?= Do you have?
- "shall" is never used in the first form singular
- shall/should is used asking for the instructions
- use of auxiliaries (you needn't/ you don't need; I suggest that you do it)
- government, team, family - singular
- in the street/on the street
- take a bath/have a bath; take a shower/have a shower
- at weekends/on weekends
- different to/different than
- write to somebody/write somebody
- to, in hospital/ to, in the hospital
- burnt, spoilt/burned, spoiled - some irregular Br. verbs are regular in Am. E.
- get, got, got/get, got, gotten
- travelling/traveling
6. Give examples of some borrowings from other languages made in America.
Indian: opossum, raccoon, skunk, caribou, moose
French: prairie, rapids
Spanish: lasso, cafeteria, rodeo, sombrero
German: semester, seminar, frankfurter
Dutch: cookie, Yankee, Santa Claus
African: Jazz, hippie
7. Describe the borders of the US.
The United States of America, also referred to as the United States, U.S.A., U.S., America, or the States, is a federal republic in central North America, stretching from the Atlantic in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It shares land borders with Canada in the north and Mexico in the south, a marine border with Russia in the northwest, and has a collection of districts, territories, and possessions around the world.
The United States proper has land borders with Canada and Mexico, as well as several territorial water boundaries with Canada, Russia and The Bahamas. It is otherwise bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.
8. How many states are there in the United States? The country has fifty states and the district of Columbia, which have a level of local autonomy according to the system of federalism.
9. Which of the states is the biggest in area and which one is the smallest? Corresp. Alaska and Rhode Island.
10. Name as many states as you can without taking breath. See the att.
11. What regions are American states usually divided into?
P New England, made up of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
P The Middle Atlantic, comprising New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland.
P The South, which runs from Virginia south to Florida and west as far as central Texas. This region also includes West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and parts of Missouri and Oklahoma.
P The Midwest, a broad collection of states sweeping westward from Ohio to Nebraska and including Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, Iowa, parts of Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, and eastern Colorado.
P The Southwest, made up of western Texas, portions of Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and the southern interior part of California.
P The West, comprising Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Utah, California, Nevada, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii.
12. What states are included into New England? Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island
13. What state is usually referred to as the "land of 10 000 lakes"? Minnesota.
14. What states are called the Gulf states and why? (штати Мексиканської затоки) Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas- they are washed by the Gulf of Mexico.
15. What is the name of the North-Eastern region of the US? New England
16. What are the most and the least densely populated states?
The most densely populated states are New Jersey (372/sq.km), Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, California, New York and Texas.
! Robust population growth continues to sweep the nation's Southern and Western states, according to estimates by the Census Bureau.
If the trend continues at its current pace, states in the Northeast and Midwest that have been population powerhouses since the 19th century will lose their dominance to Sun Belt states by 2010.
Least populated - Alaska, Wyoming, Nevada.
17. Give examples of the nicknames of the US states and the symbols that they have.
Kentucky - nickname: Bluegrass State, flower: Goldenrod, bird: Kentucky Cardinal.
Tennessee - nickname: Volunteer State, flower: Iris, bird: Mockingbird.
Alabama - nickname: The Heart of Dixie, The Cotton State, The Yellowhammer State, flower: Camellia, bird: Yellowhammer.
Mississippi - nickname: Magnolia State, flower: Flower or Bloom of the Magnolia or Evergreen Magnolia, bird:Mockingbird. +see the att.
18. What is the largest river in the US? The Mississippi (2320 miles (3733 km). The river begins as a 12-foot wide stream in