Реферат на тему:
FOLK ART FRОМ UKRAINE
Ukrainian folk art has centuries-old traditions. Ukrainian weavers, painters, wood-carvers, potters, carpet-makers and embroideresses are well-known all over the Ukraine and abroad. Polk art in Ukraine is rich in forms and design and varies from region to region. In Ukraine there are a number of districts where folk arte and handicrafts have a distinctly local character. The works of the craftsmen of the Dnieper Basin, of Chernigiv Polissia and of the Hutsul folk masters are quite different, beautiful in their own way and popular.
Folk art is closely connected with the customs of the people. The endurance of tradition is illustrated by customs and rituals which are still alive though their original meaning may be forgotten. The pisanka Easter egg is still painted and the wedding loaf is still baked, but not everybody knows that they are parts of ancient pagan cults.
There are many permanent forms and motifs, connected with these ancient cults, in Ukrainian folk art. A moat common ornamental motif is the sun sign which may be a simple circle, one may come across it in wood-carving, in pisanka (Easter egg), in Hutsul metalware, on embroidered towels (rushniks). The representations of horses and birds are also very popular in Ukrainian traditional folk arts and handicrafts. The old-time belief was that the bird served as a symbol of peace and prosperity. The horse symbol was used to protect from the evil eye.
Various kinds of artistic wood-carving have been known in Ukrainian wood-lands since ancient times, especially in the foothills of the Carpathians. Here, in many families the working of wood is a craft handed down from generation to generation, the Shkribliaks and the Korpaniuke from the village of Yavoriv, Ivano-Frankivsk Region are especially well-known. Hundreds of master carvers have participated in the decoration of various modern buildings. Thus, Hutsul wood-carvers decorated several restaurants in Ivano-Frankivsk and Yaremcha.
In Ukraine the art of metal-working reached its highwater mark as early as the tenth-twelfth centuries. But at that time it was located in towns. Only at the end of the eighteenth century the craft spread to the countryside. There appeared many craftsmen in the left-Bank regions, Podillia and the Eastern Carpathians producing jewellery: rings, earrings, ornamental buttons and dukachi necklets of gold and silver coins. Hutsul folk craftsmen living in the Carpathian foothills continue to use the traditional metal-working techniques that were used in the 18-th century to make such things as knives, forester1s axes, pin and needle cases, tobacco pipes, timberboxes, chains, buttons, crosses and so on.
The Ukrainians' top popular arts and handicrafts have long been embroidery, weaving and making of rugs and carpets. In olden days every peasant woman knew how to embroider and do needlework. In fact she was taught that from childhood. In Ukraine embroidery was used to ornament clothes, table-linen and bed-linen and especially the rushnik towels. Each place had its own particular methods for embroidering this or that thing and its own colour scheme.
The rushnik towels were used to decorate the interior of the house, to drape windows and the corner where the holy pictures were hung. They were also used at different rituals. The weaving of rugs and hangings was also a most popular craft in Ukraine. The traditional national kilim was an element of interior decoration in every peasant house. It served as wall hanging and table-cloth; the runner-type was spread over benches, while smaller rugs carpeted seats. The main appeal of the kilim lies in its exciting colour scheme. How kilims are mostly made at carpet-making establishments, though in many villages in the Carpathians peasant women still weave kilims at home. Kosiv and Kolomiya are famous for their kilims all over Ukraine.
Nowadays there are changes in the way folk craftsmen are trained. There are special art schools and enterprises in such traditional folk art centres as Kosiv, Yavoriv, Vizhnitsya.
Various expositions and the permanent collections of the Kiev Museum of Polk Decorative Art, the Lviv Museum of Ethnography and Handicrafts, the Kolomiya Museum of Hutsul Art display treasures created by the people in the course of many centuries.
The Ukrainians have long decorated with hand-painted designs and scenes not only furniture, carts and playthings but also the walls of their huts inside and out. In north-eastern part of Lviv there is the Museum of Polk Architecture and Rural Life. Its exposition is arranged so as to show all the ethnographic areas of Ukraine. At the beginning of the 20-th century ethnographic and historical ethnographic districts were formed in the present-day western part of Ukraine: Boiko, Hutsul, Lemko, Podillia, Polissia and Volhynia areas, the Carpathian plain and Pokuttia. Each of these areas is reproduced in a separate section of the museum. In each section there are huts, storehouses, work-shops, churches and so on. The collection of the museum includes 112 monuments of folk architecture brought in from the western parts of Ukraine. The work is not over. The complete exposition is supposed to include over 200 exhibits.
weaver - ткач; wood-carver - різьбяр по дереву
potter - гончар; carpet-maker - килимар; handicraft - ремесло;
craftsman - ремісник; endurance of tradition - послідовність традиції;
custom - звичай; ritual - ритуал, обряд; Easter egg - писанка;
wedding loaf - весільний коровай;
ancient pagant cult - древній язичеський культ;
metalware - вироби з металу; representation - зображення;
highwater mark - найвище досягнення; finger ring - перстень;
earrings - сережки; dukachi necklet of gold and silver coins - намисто із золотих та срібних монет; pin and needle case - коробка для голок;
timberbox - шкатулка; chain - ланцюг; top popular - найбільш популярний; embroidery - вишивання; to decorate the interior of the house - прикрашати інтер'єр будинку; holy picture - образ; wall hanging - настінний килим; runner - доріжка; the main appeal of - головна привабливість;
rural - сільський; ethnographic area - етнографічна зона;
present-day - сучасний; hut - хата; store-house - стодола;
workshop - майстерня.
Answer the following questions:
1. What handicrafts are the Ukrainians famous for? 2. What is folk art closely connected with? 3. What are the most common ornamental motifs in Ukrainian folk art? 4. What does the main appeal of the Ukrainian kilim carpet lie in? 5. Where are special art schools and enterprises? 6. Where can one find expositions and permanent collections of pieces of Ukrainian folk art? 7. What kind of museum lives an idea of Ukrainian folk architecture and rural life? 8. What ethnographic areas were formed at the beginning of the 20-th century in the present-daywestern part of Ukraine?
The Hutsuls are a small ethnic sub-group of the Ukrainians who live in the Eastern Carpathians. They lived isolated in the mountains and developed quite distinctive crafts and forms of their own. Thick forest gave them logs for buildings and for wood-carving, sheep gave them wool for clothes and leather for their boots, bags and belts and they made colourful hand-painted pottery of local clays. Some of the peasant craftsmen achieved a high level of artistry.
The wooden buildings are perhaps among the Hutsuls greatest achievements. Here we find a craftsman's deep understanding of the qualities of his material and a keen sense of proportion. 'The log house with its long verandah under one side of a wide overhanging roof is typical for the Hutsuls. In olden times there was also a log fence enclosing the front yard.
The Hutsul1s churches have always been planned like a cross and have a tent-roofed tower. There are many remarkable variations, but this is the typical Hutsul church.
The fame of the Carpathian wood-carvers since long has spread well beyond their mountains. This craft grew out of the peasant's natural desire to decorate the things he used. Simple at first the carvings became gradually more artistic and Hutsul carvers started using different inlays - wood, horn, metal, mother-of-pearl.
Jewellery was, however, one of their most ancient crafts. Metal, mostly brass, was important for decorating their traditional dress, leatherwear, weapons, tobacco pipes and other things.
Their decorative towels, table-cloths , rugs and coverlets with the characteristic pattern and embroidery are done in warm colours.
Then there are the famous fluffy lizhnik rugs and kilim carpets which are still made in large numbers. Several crafts -weaving, embroidery, metal and leather work - come together in wonderful harmony to make Hutsul costume.
ethnic sub-group - етнічна підгрупа; isolated - ізольований;
distinctive - особливий; colourful, hand-painted pottery - яскрава кераміка,
розмальована вручну; local clay - місцева глина;
to achieve a high level of artistry - досягнути високого рівня художнього
виконання; deep understanding of the qualities of his material - глибоке
розуміння якості матеріалу; a keen sense of proportion - гостре чуття
пропорцій; log house - зруб; overhanging roof - звислий дах;
to spread well beyond - поширитися далекo від ...; since long - здавна;
inlay - мозаїчне вкраплення; mother-of-pearl - перламутр;
leatherwear - одяг із шкіри; coverlet - покривало, коц;
fluffy lizhnik rug - пухнастий ліжник.
Answer the following questions:
1. Where do the Hutsuls live? 2. What material do they use for their crafts? 3. What are the Hutsuls' top popular arts and handicrafts? 4. What kind of house may be considered typical for the Hutsuls? 5. What inlays do Hutsul carvers use? 6. Is metal used by the Hutsuls to decorate dress and leatherwear? 7. What do the Hutsuls decorate with embroidery?