Canada moved slowly towards self-rule during the second half of the nineteenth century. A federation of the provinces was formed from Nova Scotia on the Atlantic coast to British Columbia on the far side of the Rockies. In 1936 Canada became a Dominion (a self-governing nation) within the British Commonwealth and Empire. The Dominions of Canada, New Zealand and South Africa went to war alongside Britain in 1918 and again in 1939.
People of Canada
Canada is a good example of the way peoples of different ways of life and different languages can live side by side under one government. The population of Canada has risen from 11,5 million in 1941 to 25 million in 1980. Most of the newcomers are from Europe, Asia and the USA, so that today less than 44% of Canada's population is of British origin. Quebec Province is still 90% French. There are some groups of French Canadiands in Ontario and Manitoba, but the numbers are quite small.
There are many Indians, Pacistanis and Chinese, and also blacks from the USA, among the immigrants who are pouring into Canada now. Some Canadians are afraid that before long Canada will have coloured citizens that white. Other Canadians are disturbed by the growing racism in their country. Canada, like so many countries, has only just begun to treat her own non-white citizens, Eskimos (or Inuit) and the Indians, as generously as they deserve. The Indian and Eskimo populations have grown quite a lot in the last few years. The government is at last realizing that it has a duty towards this people that it has neglected for so long.
All Canadian children have to learn both French and English at school, but Francophones and Anglophones do not enjoy learning each other's language. Still, most Quebecois middle class families, living in Montreal are bilingual - they speak English and French equally well.
Until the Second World War, every Canadian province except Quebec was overwhelmingly British. Some Canadians were more patriotic than the British themselves and were really angry if anyone walked out of a cinema while 'God Save the King' was being played. Now Canadians think of themselves as a people in their own right, not tied to either Britain or the USA. The USA has not been a threat to Canada for almost two hundred years. In fact, the 6,416 km US-Canadian frontier is the longest continuous frontier in the world, has no wire fence, no soldiers, no guns on either side. It is called 'The Border'.
History of Canada
25000 years ago From Asia across the Ber-ing Strait People can be divided into 6 groups:
1. The arctic peoples (in the far north) ' hunting.
2. The sub-arctic peoples (from Newfoundland to British Columbia) ' hunting, fishing ' the Beo-thuks.
3. The eastern woodlands tribes (Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island) ' agriculture ' permanent settlements ' the Iroquois.
4. The plains peoples (the prairies, from lake Winnipeg to Rocky Mountains) ' hunting, fishing ' the Cree, the Blackfoot.
5. The plateau peoples (British Columbia) ' hunting, gathering.
6. The northwest peoples (from Vancouver to Alaska) ' hunting, fishing ' the Haida.
6000 years ago The Eskimos The Inuit (Eskimos) ' hunting.
1000 AD The Vikings from Iceland and Green-land Occupied the eastern edge of Canada, founded Norman settlement which existed only 1 year.
1497 AD English seaman John Cabot Reached Newfoundland.
1535 AD French explorer Jacques Cartier - founder of Canada Discovered the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Settled Kanata (a Huron-Iroquois word "village") which gave the name to the whole country Canada.
1642 AD French explorer Champlain Established the first permanent settlements at Quebec ("where the river becomes narrow").
1663 AD Canada became a province of France (60.000 French settlers).
1670 AD British Trade Company Hudson's Bay Company (fur) occupied northern territories of the country ' Ontario.
1717 AD The British Newfoundland were under
Nova Scotia British control.
1754 AD French-Indian War.
1756 AD - 1763 AD Rivalry between the English and the French '
The Seven Years' War in which Great Britain gained military victory.
1763 AD The British captured Quebec.
The British obtained control of the rest of New France. France handed Canada over to Britain.
1774 AD The Quebec Act (France retained the rights to their own language, religion and civil laws).
1775 AD - 1783 AD The American Revolution.
1791 AD Canada was divided into Upper (English speaking Ontario) and Lower Canada (French speaking Quebec).
1793 AD Sir Alexander Mackenzie Reached the Pacific Ocean.
1812 AD Lord Selkirk Formed a settlement of Scot Immigrants, Manitoba.
1812 AD -
1814 AD British-American War which ended in a draw.
1837 AD -
1839 AD British Lord Durham Political agitation.
1840 AD Act of Union (Quebec and Ontario were united). They didn't like to be under British or American control.
1848 AD Canada got internal self-government.
1867 AD, July 1st The Canadian Dominion of Canada (a national holiday, Day of Canada). 4 provinces were united Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick.
By 1912 AD All provinces had become part of the central government.
1931 AD Canada A voluntary member of Commonwealth.
1945 AD Canada A member of United Nation Organization.
1949 AD Newfoundland became part of the central government.
1949 AD Canada A member of NATO.
1950s A time of unprecedented wealth (the middle class mushroomed).
1960 AD Canada's first Bill of Rights was signed.
1995 AD Canada won in the so-called fish wars with Spain.
2000 AD Canada maintains its position in NATO and is one of the so-called G-7 countries. (The G-7 group ofGer-many, France, the USA, the UK, Japan, Italy and Canada meet regularly to develop major economic poli-cies.)
Provinces and Territories of Canada
Province in brief Occupation Cities
1 2 3
"rocks standing high near the water"
Entered Confederation: 1 July 1867
Area: 1,068,587 sq km
Location: in the center of Canada
" the trillium
" the eastern white pine
" the loon It's a geographic and cultural transition be-tween eastern Quebec and the Midwestern prairie provinces.
It's the largest province in the terms of wealth and population.
It's the most industrial center of Canada.
It produces: 98% of motor vehicles,
93 % of heavy electrical equip-ment,
92% of agricultural machinery,
? of the world's nickel (Sudbury).
It's the national leader in car production (Oshawa, Winsdor).
It's Canada's iron and steel center (Hamilton).
Elliot Lake sits on the largest uranium deposits.
The Niagara Peninsula is an important