... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Ukraine - Реферат

Ukraine - Реферат

Unemployment rate: 3.7% officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers (December 1998)
revenues: $18 billion
expenditures: $21 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing (especially sugar)
Industrial production growth rate: -1.5% (1998 est.)
Electricity-production: 171.8 billion kWh (1998)
Electricity-production by source:
fossil fuel: 47%
hydro: 9.2%
nuclear: 43.8%
other: 0% (1998)
Electricity-consumption: 174 billion kWh (1998)
Electricity-exports: 5 billion kWh (1998)
Electricity-imports: 7 billion kWh (1998)
Agriculture-products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
Exports: $11.3 billion (1998 est.)
Exports-commodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food products
Exports-partners: Russia, China,, Turkey, Germany, Belarus (1998)
Imports: $13.1 billion (1998 est.)
Imports-commodities: energy, machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals, plastics and rubber
Imports-partners: Russia, Germany, US, Poland, Italy (1998)
Debt-external: $10.9 billion (October 1998)
Economic aid-recipient: $637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended Funds Facility $2.2 billion (1998)
Currency: 1 hryvna=100kopiykas
Exchange rates: hryvnia per US$1-3.4270 (February 1999), 2.4495 (1998), 1.8617 (1997), 1.8295 (1996), 1.4731 (1995), 0.3275 (1994)
note: in August 1998, Ukraine introduced currency controls in an attempt to fend off the impact of the Russian financial crisis; it created an exchange rate corridor for the hryvnia of 2.5-3.5 hryvnia per US$1
Fiscal year: calendar year
Telephones: 12,531,277 (1998)
Telephone system: Ukraine's phone systems are administered through the State Committee for Communications; Ukraine has a telecommunication development plan through 2005; Internet service is available in large cities
domestic: local-Kiev has a digital loop connected to the national digital backbone; Kiev has several cellular phone companies providing service in the different standards; some companies offer intercity roaming and even limited international roaming; cellular phone service is offered in at least 100 cities nationwide
international: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved the Ukrainian telephone system; Ukraine's two main fiber-optic lines are part of the Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE); these lines connect Ukraine to worldwide service through Belarus, Hungary, and Poland; Odesa is a landing point for the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia Undersea Fiber-Optic Cable (ITUR) giving Ukraine an additional fiber-optic link to worldwide service; Ukraine has Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik earth stations
Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; note-at least 25 local broadcast stations of NA type (1998)
Radios: 15 million (1990)
Television broadcast stations: at least 33 (in addition 21 repeater stations that relay ORT broadcasts from Russia) (1997)
Televisions: 17.3 million (1992)
total: 23,350 km
broad gauge: 23,350 km 1.524-m gauge (8,600 km electrified)
total: 172,565 km
paved: 163,937 km (including 1,875 km of expressways); note-these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced
unpaved: 8,628 km (1996 est.)
Waterways: 4,400 km navigable waterways, of which 1,672 km were on the Pryp''yat' and Dnistr (1990)
Pipelines: crude oil 4,000 km (1995); petroleum products 4,500 km (1995); natural gas 34,400 km (1998)
Ports and harbors: Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev (Kyyiv), Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni
Merchant marine:
total: 181 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,022,047 GRT/1,101,278 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 117, liquefied gas tanker 1, container 4, multifunction large-load carrier 2, oil tanker 16, passenger 12, passenger-cargo 3, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 10, short-sea passenger 3 (1998 est.)
Airports: 706 (1994 est.)
Airports-with paved runways:
total: 163
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 55
1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 57 (1994 est.)
Airports-with unpaved runways:
total: 543
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 476 (1994 est.)
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Internal Troops, National Guard, Border Troops
Military manpower-military age: 18 years of age
Military manpower-availability:
males age 15-49: 12,434,486 (1999 est.)
Military manpower-fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 9,740,684 (1999 est.)
Military manpower-reaching military age annually:
males: 365,762 (1999 est.)
Military expenditures-dollar figure: $414 million (1999)
Military expenditures-percent of GDP: 1.4% (1999)
Transnational Issues
Disputes-international: dispute with Romania over continental shelf of the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may exist; agreed in 1997 to two-year negotiating period, after which either party can refer dispute to the International Court of Justice (ICJ); has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation
Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey, and to Europe and Russia; drug-related money laundering a minor, but growing, problem