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The JAZZ Story - Курсова робота

musical instruction at reform school, where he
spent eighteen months for shooting off an old pistol loaded with blanks on
the street on New Year's Eve of 1913. He came outwith enough musical
savvy to take jobs with various bands in town. The first established
musician to sense the youngster's great talent was King Oliver, who tutored
Louis and became his idol.
When Oliver sent for Louis to join him in Chicago, that city had become
the world's new Jazz center. Even though New York was where the
Original Dixieland Jass Band had scored its big success, followed by the
spawning of the first dance craze associated with the music, the New York
bands seemed to take on the vaudeville aspects of the ODJB's style
without grasping the real nature of the music. Theirs was an imitation
Dixieland (of which Ted Lewis was the first and most successful
practitioner), but there were few southern musicians in New York to lend
the music a New Orleans authenticity.
Chicago, on the other hand, was teeming with New Orleans musicmakers,
and the city's nightlife was booming in the wake of prohibition. By all
odds, the best band in town was Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, especially
after Louis joined in late 1922. The band represented the final great
flowering of classic New Orleans ensemble style and was also the
harbinger of something new. Aside from the two cornetists, its stars were
the Dodds Brothers, clarinetists Johnny (1892-1940) and drummer Baby
(1898-1959). Baby Dodds brought a new level of rhythmic subtlety and
drive to jazz drumming. Along with another New Orleans-bred musician,
Zutty Singleton (1897-1975), he introduced the concept of swinging to the
Jazz drums. But the leading missionary of swinging was, unquestionably,
Louis Armstrong.
The Creole Jazz Band began to record in 1923 and while not the first black
New Orleans band to make records, it was the best. The records were
quite widely distributed and the band's impact on musicians was great.
Two years earlier, trombonist Kid Ory (1886-1973) and his Sunshine
Orchestra captured the honor of being the first recorded artists in this
category. However, they recorded for an obscure California company
which soon went out of business and their records were heard by very
Also in 1923, the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, a white group active in
Chicago, began to make records. This was a much more sophisticated
group than the old Dixieland Jass Band, and on one of its recording dates,
it used the great New Orleans pianist-composer Ferdinand (Jelly Roll)
Morton (1890-1941). The same year, Jelly Roll also made his own initial
Morton, whose fabulous series of 1938 recordings for the Library of
Congress are a goldmine of information about early Jazz, was a complex
man. Vain, ambitious, and given to exaggeration, he was a pool shark,
hustler and gambler a well as a brilliant pianist and composer. His greatest
talent, perhaps was for organizing and arranging. The series of records he
made with his Red Hot Peppers between 1926 and 1928 stands, alongside
Oliver's as the crowning glory of the New Orleans tradition and one of the
great achievements in Jazz.
That tradition, however, was too restricting for a creative genius like Louis
Armstrong. He left Oliver in late 1924, accepting an offer from New
York's most prestigious black bandleader, Fletcher Henderson
(1897-1952). Henderson's band played at Roseland Ballroom on
Broadway and was the first significant big band in Jazz history.
Evolved from the standard dance band of the era, the first big Jazz bands
consisted of three trumpets, one trombone, three saxophones (doubling all
kinds of reed instruments), and rhythm section of piano, banjo, bass (string
or brass) and drums. These bands played from written scores
(arrangements or "charts"), but allowed freedom of invention for the
featured soloists and often took liberties in departing from the written
Though it was the best of the day, Henderson's band lacked rhythmic
smoothness and flexibility when Louis joined up. The flow and grace of his
short solos on records with the band make them stand out like diamonds in
a tin setting.
The elements of Louis' style, already then in perfect balance, included a
sound that was the most musical and appealing yet heard from a trumpet; a
gift for melodic invention that was as logical as it was new and startling,
and a rhythmic poise (jazzmen called it "time") that made other players
sound stiff and clumsy in comparison.
His impact on musicians was tremendous. Nevertheless, Henderson didn't
feature him regularly, perhaps because he felt that the white dancers for
whom his band performed were not ready for Louis' innovations. During
his year with the band, however, Louis caused a transformation in its style
and, eventually, in the whole big band field. Henderson's chief arranger,
Don Redman, (1900-1964) grasped what Louis was doing and got some of
it on paper. After working with Louis, tenor saxophonist Coleman
Hawkins (1904-1969) developed a style for his instrument that became the
guidepost for the next decade.
While in New York, Louis also made records with Sidney Bechet, and
with Bessie Smith (1894-1937), the greatest of all blues singers. In 1925,
he returned to Chicago and began to make records under his own name
with a small group, the Hot Five. Included were his wife Lil Hardin
Armstrong (1899-1971) on piano, Kid Ory, Johnny Dodds, and guitarist
Johnny St. Cyr. The records, first to feature Louis extensively, became a
sensation among musicians, first all over the United States and later all
over the world. The dissemination of jazz, and in a very real sense its
whole development, would have been impossible without the phonograph.
The Hot Five was strictly a recording band. For everyday work, Louis
played in a variety of situations, including theater pit bands. He continued
to grow and develop, and in 1927 switched from cornet to the more
brilliant trumpet. He had occasionally featured his unique gravel voiced
singing, but only as a novelty. Its popular potential became apparent in
1929, when, back in New York, he starred in a musical show in which he
introduced the famous Ain't Misbehavin' singing as well as playing the
great tune written by pianist Thomas (Fats) Waller (1904-1943), himself
one of the