... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → The educational system of Great Britain - Реферат

The educational system of Great Britain - Реферат

Реферат на тему:
The educational system of Great Britain.
The educational system of G.B. is extreamely complex and bewilder- ing.It is very difficult to generalise about particular types of schools as schools differ from one to the other. The departament of education and science is responsible for national educational policy,but it doesnOt employe teacher or prescribe corricular or text books. Each school has itOs own board of governers consisting of teachers, parents, local politicians, members of local community, businessmen and sometimes pupils. According to the law only one subject is compulsary. Such as religious instruction. Schooling for children is compulsary from 5 to 16, though some provision is made for children under 5 and some pupils remain at school after 16 to prepare for higher education. The state school system is usually devided into 2 stages (secondary and primary). The majority of primary schools are mixed.They are subdevided into infant schools(ages 5 to 7),and junior schools(ages 7 to11). In junior schools pupils were often placed in A,B,C or D-streams, according to their abilities. Under the pressue of progressive parents and teachers the 11+ examination has now been abolished in most parts of the country. There are some types of schools in G.B.Grammar schools provided an academical cause for selected pupils from the age of 11 to 18. Only those children who have the best results are admitted to these schools. They give pupils a high level of academic education wich can lead to the university. Technical Schools offer a general education with a techni- cal bias and serve those pupils who are more mecanically minded. The corricular includes more science and mathematics. Secondary modern schools were formed to provide a non-academic education for children of lesser attainment. The corricular includes more practical subjects. The comprehensive schools brings about a general improvement in the system of secondary education.
British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of
individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole.
Compulsory schooling takes place between the agers of 5 and
16, but some pupils remain at shool for 2 years more, to prepare
for further higher education. Post shool education is organized
flaxebly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic
and vacational education and to continue studying through out
Administration of state schools is decentralised. The
department of education and science is responsible for national
education policy, but it doesn't run any schools, if doesn't
employ teachers, or prescribe corricular or textbooks. All shools
are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law
only one subject is compulsary.That is religious instruction.
Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in
nursery schools or in infant's classes in primary schools.
Most pupils receive free education finenst from public fonds
and the small proportions attend schools wholy independent. Most
independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing
schools is growing.
Education within the mantained schools system usually
comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary
schools are subdevided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and
junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Infant schools are informal and
children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers
and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their
work with the same class teacher exept for PT and music. The work
is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.
The junior stage extence over four years. Children have set
pirits of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography
nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were
often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities.
The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in
the D stream. Till reccantly most junior shool children had to
seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an
arithmetic paper and an entelligent test.
According to the results of the exam children are sent to
Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools.
So called comprehansive schools began to appear after World
War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education
for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given
in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.
By the law all children must receive full-time education
between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a
school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the
sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually
subdevided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The corricular is
narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.
The main examinations for secondary school pupils are
general certeficate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate
of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at
two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A
Candidats set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years away. GCE
level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE
level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the
pupils who are of everage abilities of their age.