Space. By arranging lines, colors, and light and dark areas in certain ways, painters can create an appearance of great space-even though theyreally paint on a small, flat surface. An artist can make an object look flat or solid, and either close or far away. In some paintings, space plays just as important a part as the solid forms. Picasso's "Seated Bather" shows a skillful use of space. The openings between the bonelike forms are just as expensive and interesting as the solid forms in the painting.
Texture refers to the appearance of the painting's surface. The paint of a picture maybe thick and rough or thin and smooth. In "Woman Weeping", Picasso created a rough texture by using thick strokes of paint. This texture adds to the painful emotional feeling of the painting.
If to speak about techniques, we should start with fresco painting. Fresco painting is a technique in which the artists paints on a plastered wall while the plaster is still damp. Fresco artists decorate both inside and outside walls. Their works contribute greatly to the beauty of buildings and homes. Fresco painting is especially well suited to decorating large walls in churches, government buildings, and palaces. A fresco, unlike many other painting techniques, has no glossy shining. A shine would make a fresco difficult to see from certain angels. Fresco painting reached its greatest popularity from the 1200"s through the 1500's. Italy was the center of fresco painting during that period.
Leading fresco painters included Giotto , Andrea Mantegna, Masaccio, and Michelangelo. During the 1900's, Mexican artists revised fresco painting. They included Jose Clemente Orozco and Diego Rivera . Mexican artists decorated many public buildings with large frescoes that show scenes from Mexican history.
Water color painting can be done in two major techniques, (1) transparent water color and (2) gouache. Transparent water color are paints made of pigments combined with a gum-Arabic binder. An artist using this technique lightens the color by adding water to them. In most other techniques, the artist adds white paint to lighten colors. The viewer can see the support through a layer of transparent water color. Gouache paint is also made with a gum arable binder. But during the manufacturing process, a little white pigment or chalk is added to make the paint opaque. Opaque means that the viewer cannot see through a layer of the color. An artist using the gouache technique makes the color lighter by adding white paint to them. Must styles of modern transparent and gouache water color painting grew out of techniques developed in England, France, and the Netherlands during the 1700's and 1800's. But water color paints had been used to decorate walls and ornamental objects in ancient Egypt and Asia, and in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Encaustic painting involves the use of melted wax as the binder. Pure beeswax is the best kind of wax for this purpose. Encaustic painting was widely used in Greece as early as the 400's B. C. But by about A. D. 800, the technique had been abandoned. During the 1800's, artists attempted to use wax paints for outdoor murals. Some painters of the 1900's have used the technique for easel picture.
Pastels are colored chalk sticks. They are made of pigment and a small amount of weak adhesive. Many artists who draw especially well like to work in pastel because they can use the stick like a pencil while producing brilliant effects of color.
Two French artists of the 1700's Jean Chardin and Maurice Quentin de La Tour, made excellent pastel portraits. Outstanding French artists of the 1800's, including Edouard Manet, Jean Francais Millet, and Pierre Auguste Renoir, often worked in pastel. They captured the visual effects of light and atmosphere in pure pastel colors. Edgar Degas, another French artist of bather, dancers, and people working . Degas's well drawn, brilliantly colored works proved that pastel could be a major painting technique.
Tempera is a technique in which egg yolk is used as the binder. Most egg tempera paintings are done on wood.
A painter usually applies tempera in fine crisp strokes with a painted brush. The paint dries almost immediately into a thin, water-resistant coasting. Tempera dries quickly, and so the brushstrokes do not blend easily. Normally, the artist develops the tones of the picture through a series of thin strokes laid over each other. In a tempera painting, most shapes are sharp and clear. Tones are bright, and details are exact and strong.
An artist should not applies tempera paint too thickly because the paint cracks when applied in heavy layers. Tempera paintings require protection against dirt and scratching, and so he artist usually applies a coat of vanish to the finished picture.
The tempera technique achieved its greatest popularity between 1200 and 1500 in Europe. Beautiful tempera pictures were painted during the 1200's and 1300's in Siena, Italy, by Duccio di Buoninsegna and Simone Martini. Several modern American artists have used tempera skillfully. They include Ben Shahn, Mark Tobey, and Andrew Wyeth.
Oil paint is made by mixing powdered pigments with a binder of vegetable oil. Linseed oil is the most common binder. Certain feature of oil paint make it popular with artists who want to show the natural appearance of the world around them. Oil paint-even when applied thickly - does not crack so easily as does water paint or egg tempera. As a result, the painter can apply oil paint in varying thicknesses to produce a wide range of textures. Each artist develops his or her own method of working with oil paint.
Oil painting first became popular in Europe during the 1500's. By the 1700's it had become the most common painting technique. It remains the technique preferred by many artists today.
No one knows when people first painted pictures. Scholars date the oldest known paintings at about 20,000 B. C. The high quality of these works suggests that people began to paint pictures much earlier.
Egyptian painting. The ancient Egyptians began painting about 5.000 years ago. They developed one of the first definite traditions in the history of the art. Egyptian artists painted on the walls of temples and palaces, but much of their finest work appears in tombs. Like other early peoples, the Egyptians believed that art was a magical