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Тексти про Україну (англійською мовою) (шпаргалки) - Реферат

Ukraine is situated in the eastern part of Europe. It borders on Russia in the east, Belorussia in the north, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Moldova in the west. Ukraine is washed by the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea in the south. The area of Ukraine is more than 603 thousand square kilometers. The most part of its area is flat. There are the Crimean Mountains in the south and the Carpathians in the west.
The territory of our country lies in three main zones: mixed forests, forest-steppes and steppes. The flora and fauna of our country are extremely rich. The nature of Ukraine is especially beautiful. There are 131 rivers in Ukraine. The longest rivers are the Dniester, the Donets, the Bug. The rivers of Ukraine are navigable. There are more than three hundred cities and towns in Ukraine. The biggest of them are Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dniepropetrovsk, Lviv. Odessa, Mikolayiv, Kherson, Kerch are the most important ports of Ukraine. The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. It is an administrative, industrial, scientific and cultutal centre. Ukraine is rich in mineral resources: coal, oil, gas. different ores. Some of them are of industrial importance. Ukraine is a developed industrial country. Ukraine produces up-to-date instruments, electronic microscopes, synthetic diamonds. Ukraine is an agricultural country. Its soil is fertile. The geographical position of Ukraine is favourable for maintaining closeeconomic relations with many European countries.
The climate of Ukraine is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is 7 degrees below zero, in July it is 17 degrees above zero. The winters are frosty. Sometimes the temperature is 20-25 degrees below zero. The weather varies greatly from year to year. Sometimes it often rains throughout a year and sometimes it is very dry. On the main part of the country rain falls enough to cultivate different agricultural plants. The climate of the Crimea differs from that on the main territory. The climate here is subtropical. The winter temperature is about 4 degrees above zero and the average temperature in summer is about 22 degrees above zero. There are a lot of evergreen plants in the Crimea. Comparing the climate in Ukraine with the climate in other European countries we may say that summers are hotter in Ukraine and winters are colder.
Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. It's one of the oldest cities of Europe. Kyiv is situated on the picturesque banks of the Dnieper river. The population of Kiev is about 3 million. Kyiv is a large political, industrial and cultural centre. Kyiv is a seat of the higher body of state power of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada. Kyiv is a scientific centre. Kyiv's cultural life is rich and varied. There are many theatres, museums, exhibitions in Kyiv. The most important educational institutions of Ukraine are in Kyiv. The Natiuonal Ukrainian University named after Shevchenko is in the centre of the capital. Kyiv is the Hero-City. In the park of Immortal Glory there is an obelisk in honour of those who fell in the battles of the Second World War. A lot of tourists come to Kyiv. The central street of the capital is Kreshchatic. There are many fine buildings in Kreshchatic. Kyiv is especially beautiful in spring when the famous Kyiv chestnut trees are in blossom.
Ukraine is a sovereign state. It has its own territory, higher and local bodies of state power, government, national emblem, state flag and anthem In July 1990 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Parliament, adopted the document of great importance - the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. According to the Declaration only the Verkhovna Rada can speak on behalf of the whole Ukrainian people.
In July 1996 the Verkhovna Rada adopted the new Constitution of Ukraine. According to it Ukraine is a parliamentary republic with the presidential governing. The higher body of state power isthe Verkhovna Rada. The functions of the Verkhovna Rada are legislation and scrutiny of government activities. The Ukrainian government is headed by the Prime-Minister. The elections of the deputies to the parliament are held every four years. The President is elected every five years. He is the Head of State. He cannot be elected for more than two terms. The Constitution of Ukraine is the main law in the country. It guarantees certain rights and freedoms to the Ukrainian citizens and determines their duties.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles are separated from Europe by the English Channel. The British Isles are washed by the North Sea in the East and the Atlantic Ocean in the West. The population of Great Britain is over 56 million. The langest cities of the country are London, Liverpool, Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh. The territory of Great Britain is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England is the richest, the most populated part in the contry. There are mountains in the north and in the west of England, but all the rest of the territory is a plain. Scotland is a land of mountains. Its highest peak is Ben Nevis. The British Isles have many rivers. The longest of them is the Severn. It flows into the Irish Sea. The Thames is over 200 miles long. London, the capital of Great Britain, stands on it. Geographical position of Great Britain is rather good as the country lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the world.
In Great Britain it is never too hot or too cold for work or play in the open air. The sea keeps the island warm in winter. The winds have also very much to do with weather in Great Britain. Warm winds from the Atlantic are wet and warm. They bring plenty of rain to the island. The east and north-east winds are cold and dry. Thanks to the mild climate there are a lot of eveiyeen plants in Great Britain. But the lack of sunshine is the reason why the cultivation of grain crops is difficult. Grass grows all the year round. The weather changes very