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Moscow (тема) - Реферат

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre.
It was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1147. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That's why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again.
Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in the Europe. It stands on the bank of the Moskva-River. More than 10 million people live in the city. Moscow is famous for its historical and architectural monuments that were built by outstanding architects and sculptors.
Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The historical centre of Moscow is Red Square. The best starting point of the tour around the city is Red Square, the central and the most beautiful square in Moscow. It is the place of parades, meeting and demonstrations. Here one can see the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, or St. Basil's cathedral, erected to commemorate Russia's conquest of the Kazan Kingdom in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture. Tourists can see the monument to Minin and Pozharsky in memory of the Russian victory over the Polish invaders. The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin, a wonderful architectural ensemble with 3 magnificent cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great palaces, fortress walls and 20 towers. The most famous of the towers is the Spasskaya Tower with a big clock. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world.The Kremlin with golden domes and tower makes a strong impression on tourists. The Alexander Garden with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is the place of memory. One of thewell-known Kremlin museums is the Armoury Chamber. The famous golden cap of Monomach, the first Russian imperial crown of Catherine the Second and many other historical items are exhibited there.
Some skyscrapers decorate Moscow including Moscow University, a palace of knowledge and students. Moscow is a scientific and cultural centre where there are a lot of institutes, universities, libraries, museums. The city leads a varied cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs, concert halls, more than 40 drama and musical theatres, including the Bolshoi Theatre, the Art Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the Vakhtangov Theatre. The magestic building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre Square in Moscow's central quater, not far from Kremlin. This is the leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists and choreographers in it's company.
People of Moscow are proud of their museums : the Tretyakov Gallery, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, literary museums. The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best-known picture galleries in Russia. It takes its name from it's founder Pavel Tretyakov, a Moscow merchant. In the 19'th century Tretyakov began to collect Russian paintings, and before his death he donated the collection to the city of Moscow. Since then the gallery has received hundred paintings from other museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallery reflects the whole history of Russian paintings from 11'th century to the present day. Crowds of people visit the Tretiakov Gallery admiring beautiful pictures of Russian painters.
The citizens of Moscow enjoy spending their weekends in parks and gardens - the Park of Culture and Rest, Izmailovo, Sokolniki.
Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament and the centre of political life of the country.
Moscow is a place where thins are happening in all spheres of life.