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Министерство общего и профессионального образования - Реферат

Министерство общего и профессионального образования

Свердловской области.

Правовой Лицей имени Е. Р. Кастеля города Екатеринбурга.

Образовательная область: Филология.

Предмет: Английский язык.

Тема: "I preserve his future, he preserves

my past." (R. Bach). We all are from the childhood.

Исполнитель: Ученица 10 "Б" класса

Фамилия И. О.: Калашникова С. И.

Научный руководитель: Воронова М.В.

17 февраля 2001 года


"I preserve his future, he preserves my past" (R. Bach).

We all are from the childhood.

1. Introduction (part 1)......................................................3

2. Part 2..................................................................5

3. Conclusion (part 3)................................................14

4. The list of literature...............................................17

Introduction (Part 1)

Everybody wants to know what is happening around him or her? We hear about criminals, children's creams and strange behaviour? If analyse the last ten news-programmes, we'll understand than the kid's problems stays on the same level with news about gas or oil. The children's problems are the most interesting and important one for the majority of psychologists. They tries to understand everything what is connected with children, because everybody believes that we can change a kid, but we can not do the same with a man. Frankly speaking I disagree with this statement. Is it means that a person can not understand and solve all his problems? I think, that everybody does not believe in this.

Really, nowadays everyone is surround by a great number of problems. Some of them are really easy, and we don't need any help in their solving. However, life is not so primitive, the majority of situations are really strange. If we want to cope with such difficulties, we must understand the roots of them. We will never be good at chemistry, physics and math without knowing the basic rules and laws. The same is with the roots of human behaviour. We can not learn about men's conduct in different situations, else we'll be able to claimant people's stresses and predict human reaction (it can be very useful from the criminal side). Or, may be, we can ..!

There are a lot of points of view on a problem, where the origin of this or that conduct is. Freud came to believe that all the roots of possible complicates are laying in the sexual life of a person, Bacon found them in the inward life, in men's ghosts and idols. A great group of people believes in mystic power, which controls people's existents. It means that everything has its own beginning. If we know the origins, we will be able to give a right estimation to the situation and, of course, to react in a proper way. But, if we can learn about math rules from the special books, we can't do the same, if we want to find a local answer to the question:" where are the roots of human behaviour and reaction? Of course, there are a lot of theories and conclusions, which are connected with our topic. Nevertheless, the majority of them touch upon a question about the childhood in any case. They are confident that all information about our future life (precondition) we get in an early age, that our problems are connected with childhood and the roots of good and evil are not in the genes as commonly believe, but in the earliest days of life. This idea is rather new and conflicting, but very popular and under discussion. In this case it will not be only interesting but greatly important to learn such material inside out, and define at last, is it a solid theory, because, if it is, we'll be able to understand and claimant the impediments after memorising our past. This problem is really dillicate. For it solution, we should work with an enormous quantity theories of different thinkers (like Freud or Birn) and writers (like Bach and Coalio). The main idea is that the majority of conclusions belong to the pen of European scientists. Considering the importance of this question, it is easy to understand that it's necessary to work with English writing material, because different reports can give us inexact information, and make incorrect opinion of situation. For this reason, my paper is in English. I think, it is not very difficult to understand the aim of this work, of course. It consists of consolidation the theories about the questions that all our problems are from childhood, analysis of this material and response to the issue of correctness of these ideas.

Part 2

Human infants seem so weak and helpless at birth that it is hard to believe they are capable of much interaction with their environment. In fact, not too long ago many people still wondered whether new-born could even see or hear at all. In the last several decades, however, research on the new-born has expanded greatly, and a very different view has emerged. We now know that human infants are born with sensory systems that are impressively able. They process information and learn about their surroundings from the very moment of birth. They learn the world and try to understand how to survive in it. Children acquire an enormous amount of information in the twelve years of live. For Piaget's mind "to this age the personality is "shaped"". 1

Everything what children have learned during this years stays in the subconscious. Of course, people cannot remember the experience of such early age, but they use it, calling - intuition (instinct) or presentiment. So, our reactions and deeds "depend on what we had put inour mind" 2Lots of psychologists, the main of them is Freud, "came to believe that current problems can often be traced back to childhood experiences." 3

"Unfortunately, these early experiences are not usually available to consciousness. Only through great effort can they be coaxed into active memory," 4said Freud to this problem.

The ability to memorise depends on the development of brains. And, in each term, the abilities a person's brain can develop depend on experiences in the first three years of life, the childhood. Studies on abandoned and severely maltreated Romanian children, as an example, revealed striking lesions in certain areas of the brain. The repeated traumatization has led to an increased release of stress hormones which have attacked the sensitive tissue of the brain and destroyed the new, already build-up neurones. The areas of their brains responsible for the "management" of their emotions are 20-30% smaller than in other children of the same age. Obviously, all children (not only Romanian) who suffer such abandonment and maltreatment will be damaged in this way.

The attitude to the children always has its results. An American writer Alice Millir tried to understand, why some people (Hitler, Stalin, Mao and common one's) are so aggressive. She wrote:" I found it logical that a child beaten often and deprived of loving physical contact would quickly pick up the language of violence. For him this language became the only effective means of communication available. However, when I began to illustrate my thesis by drawing on the examples of Hitler, Stalin, Mao, Ceacescu, when I tried to expose the social consequences of child maltreatment, I first encountered strong resistance. Repeatedly I was told," I, too, was a battered child, but that did not make me a criminal. When I asked these people for details about their childhood, I was always told of a person who made the difference, a sibling, a teacher, a neighbour, just somebody who liked or even loved them but, at least in most cases, was unable to protect them. Yet through his presence this person gave the child a notion of trust and love. I call these persons "helping witnesses"."5 So, we see that these people became aggressive because they lack love and protection in the childhood. It means that we depend not only from our common surrounding, but from "thepeople from the past" 6If a person lacked protection in the childhood, he will feel himself uncomfortable and "even in a great horror" 7in the company