Федеральное агентство по образованию Российской Федерации
Новгородский государственный университет им. Ярослава Мудрого
Реферат на тему:
Rock music in Britain
Студент группы 1262
Иванов Я. О.
Александрова Г. П.
History of British music
Little survives of the early music of Britain, by which is meant the music that was used by the people before the establishment of musical notation in the medieval period. Much that survives of folk music must have had its origins in this period, although the melodies played by morris dancers and other traditional groups can also be from a later period.
Some of the earliest music to remain is either church music, or else is in the form of carols or ballads dating from the 16th century or earlier. Troubadors carried an international courtly style across western Europe. It was common in times before copyright for melodies to be interchangeable, and the same melodies will often have been used (with differing words) for secular and religious purposes. Melodies like that of the Sussex Carol or Greensleeves will have had a long history of eclectic use over the centuries.
During the 15th century, a vigorous tradition of polyphony developed in Britain, as exemplified in the music of composers such as Leonel Power, John Dunstable and Robert Fayrfax. The music of this school was famous on the continent, and occasionally rivaled the music of the contemporary Burgundian school in expressiveness and renown; indeed Dunstable is recognized as one of the strongest influences on the early development of the music of the Burgundians. Unfortunately, however, the vast majority of British music manuscripts from this period were destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries carried out by Henry VIII in the late 1530s; only a few isolated survivals remain, including the Old Hall Manuscript, the Eton Choirbook, the Winchester Troper, and a handful of scattered sources from the continent.
16th to 17th Centuries
With the growth in wealth and leisure-time for the noble classes, tastes in music began to diverge sharply. While in the early part of the period it is possible for tavern songs like Pastime with Good Companie to be attributed (apocryphally) to King Henry VIII, by the middle 16th Century there were distinct styles of music enjoyed by the differing social classes. Renaissance influences made the acquisition of musical knowledge an almost essential attribute for the nobleman and woman, and ability to play an instrument became an almost mandatory social grace.
The Rennaisance influence also internationalized courtly music in terms of both instruments and content, the lute dulcimer and early forms of the harpsichord were played, ballads and madrigals were sung. The pavane and galliard were danced. Henry Purcell became court composer to King Charles II and wrote incidental music to plays and events.
For other classes instruments like pipe, tabor, bagpipe shawm, hurdygurdy and crumhorn accompanied folk music and community dance. The fiddle gradually grew in popularity. Differing regional styles of folk music developed, in geographically separated areas such as Northumbria, London and the West Country.
British Madrigal School
From about 1588 to 1627, a group of composers known as the British Madrigal School became well-known in Britain and abroad. These madrigalists composed light a cappella songs for three to six voices, based on Italian models. The School began when Nicholas Yonge published Musica transalpina in 1588, using poetic forms like the sonnet and inspired by the work of Alfonso Ferrabosco, an Italian composer in Elizabeth I's court.
As courtly music grew more elaborate and internationalised, with composers such as Handel and Mozart, writing operas, oratorios and symphonic works, an British musician called John Gay produced The Beggar's Opera, a revolutionary popular opera which used British folk forms.
With the Industrial Revolution came a parallel revolution in British popular music as people moved from stable agrarian communities into the growing industrial centres with the rise of the brass band in the North of Britain. Folk Music went through a rapid series of transformations as different regional idioms came together and reformed themselves into the first universally acceptable and commercial popular music. This change began first in the alehouses and later in what became known as the Music Hall. Music Hall became the dominant form of British popular music for over a century from its birth in the 1850s. While folk music continued to enjoy popularity in the countryside, it was replaced for the majority by the new forms.
Early 20th Century
Edward Elgar was the dominant classical composer of the early part of the century. British tastes also tended towards light classical composers such as Edward German, Ketelbey and Eric Coates, whose music was spread by the new medium of Radio.
Radio also played a part in the increasing popularity of big band dance music, popularised by the orchestras of Geraldo, Ambrose, Henry Hall and Billy Cotton, and singers like Al Bowlly, and Jack Buchanan.
Operetta and Musical Comedy were very popular forms in this period, and leading British composers included Ivor Novello, Noel Coward, and Noel Gay.
Popular singers in the Music Hall idiom included, Marie Lloyd, Vesta Tilley, George Formby, Flanagan and Allen and Gracie Fields. With the advent of World War II the taste for a more reflective and romantic style of music was led by singers like Anne Shelton and Vera Lynn.
A significant factor in the early growth of folk clubs was Topic Records. A.L. Lloyd wrote many of the sleeve notes for the records for the next 20 years and sang on several of their albums. Ewan MacColl toured widely in Britain, and recorded many of the Child Ballads. Collets records in London was the best shop to find folk records and magazines. From the mid-fifties skiffle and Rock and Roll songs began to be home-produced by British performers.
The modern period
In the 60s and 70s, Britain was in a state of social upheaval as a counterculture developed, from which came an explosion of American blues-derived musical innovation as well as a revival of British folk, inspired by pioneering artists like the Copper family. There was mixing between the two groups, with bands like Fairport Convention and Steeleye Span pioneering a folk-rock fusion. Nic Jones, Davy Graham, Roy Harper, Ralph McTell, June Tabor, Shirley Collins, John Renbourn and John Kirkpatrick were among those who balanced innovation with tradition, and criticized the worst excesses of folk-rock. When Martin Carthy "plugged in" in 1971, the British traditional scene erupted in an uproar of criticizing. Ashley Hutchings and Dave Pegg had been earlier innovators of the fusion, and Hutchings helped propel Fairport Convention into the star position of the British folk-rock scene, starting with the album "What We Did On Our Holidays".
The seventies were probably the heydays for Folk Music Publications. The popularity of British folk declined in the later 1970s, however, losing ground to glam rock, disco, punk rock, heavy metal and lovers rock. In the mid-1980s a new rebirth began, this time fusing folk forms with energy and political aggression derived from punk rock. Leaders included The Men They Couldn't Hang, Oyster Band, Billy Bragg and The Pogues. Folk-dance music also became popular in the 80s, with the British Country Blues Band and Tiger Moth. Later in the decade, reggae influenced British country music due to the work of Edward II & the Red Hot Polkas, especially on their seminal Let's Polkasteady from 1987. In the 21st century, Oxford produced a young duo Spiers and Boden
Northumbria, at the northern edge of Britain, bordering on Scotland across the Tweed River has the most vital traditional music of Britain, with a strong scene and some mainstream success. Many of the most popular traditional songs of today were written by legendary composers like Tommy Armstrong in the late 19th century. In contrast to the rest of Britain, Northumbria shows a strong Irish Celtic influence in the music, the result of immigration. Accordions and fiddles, for example, remain popular as a lasting influence from Ireland.