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Advertising - Реферат

Trade Association Advertising

If you work for a manufacturer, the chances are very good that your company pays annual dues, is devoted to your broad industry wide interests.

This kind of advertising, which encourages the consumption or use of cotton, leather, bananas, or mild, is known to marketing people as 'primary advertising'. It's differentiated from 'selective advertising' that promotes a particular brand of cotton, leather, and so on.

National Consumer Advertising

National consumer advertising is the kind that makes up the bulk of the advertising you read in your magazines and see on TV. For the most part it is product advertising by the manufacturer, appealing directly to the person who will make the purchase at the store.

The People Who Make Advertising

It can make us be surprised to know how many people in our hometown are concerned with the making and running of advertising.

Not knowing who can do what, and for how much, can turn out to be expansive. The day may not be far off when you will be given the responsibility for producing a booklet for your company or getting a 30 – second television commercial made. It is important to know the services that are available to you in your area, and to be acquainted with their individual capabilities.

Marketing Services

The principle of the advertising agency should and probably will have a good grasp of marketing theory. This person will undoubtedly have a good knowledge of the marketing situation in the community and in the region he is working in. He should be able to sit down with the sales manager and to work out a sensible marketing plan for the product he will advertise. He should know the demographics of the region, and the tastes and background of its people.


The advertising agency should be able to provide the company with headlines and body text that are attractive, interesting, and hard selling.


Attractive, clean, well – designed layouts should be presented to the company for each ad the agency makes.

In addition, the advertising agency should have the capability of purchasing photographs, drawings, and other art work for the company.


The company is going to need expert advice on the amount of advertising the company will run, and where to run it. The advertising agency should know media (all the vehicles by which advertising is brought to the consumers); have the means for placing orders for time and space, and promptly and accurately provide the company with invoices and records.

Radio – TV

The agency will be able to have prepared and produced for the company radio and television commercials of competitive creative ability and quality and in a wide price range.

How Advertising Is Written

The Copywriter

Copywriter is the person who conceives and writes advertising. The responsibility for writing ads and commercials rests with the copywriter. But in smaller agencies this task is often performed by someone who might also be an account executive.

In fact, in times when agency profits are slimming, even the larger agencies begin to seek out people who can be both account executives and copywriters.

What Does The Copywriter Do?

The term copywriter is not an exact job description. It could mean 'the person who writes the words that go into the ad or commercial'. But that is not quite it. It's not as simple as that. The writer doesn't just write words. He or she creates selling ideas that are expressed in words and sounds and pictures.

Fortunately the copywriter doesn't have to work alone – at least not in big agencies. Before and after the act of getting something down on paper, there are account executives, research directors, marketing directors, and art directors with solace, help, and advice. But, of course, the greatest deal of the work belongs to the copywriter.

What Is a Copywriter?

Writing advertising copy is hard work. It is hard work because

  1. it is constantly demanding;

  2. it calls for the command of a variety of writing styles;

  3. it calls for a peculiar combination of natural talents and inclination that rarely occurs in one person.

How an Ad Is Written

Before a copywriter gets to the point of actually putting on paper the words for the ad or commercial, he has gone through several steps.

  1. He has taken a good look at the market segment, and knows the kind of people he will be talking to.

  2. He has diligently searched for the Main Attraction, and has it firmly fixed in mind.

  3. He has also sought out the Subsidiary Main Attraction – the other advantages that are built into the product.

  4. He has determined the most important benefits that his product can offer the buyer.

  5. In terms of psychological "needs and desires", he has calculated which of these benefits will have the greatest appeal to the consumer.

  6. He has begun to run over in his mind the ways in which this appeal may be expressed.

It is their work to sit and think, hoping to catch that flash of inspiration that will make the reader stay and read.

How Good Ads Act

It is important to know the way advertising achieves the five basic steps of getting attention, creating interest, stimulating desire, imparting conviction, and asking for the order. It's not enough that an ad should take the required steps. The real test comes while realizing how well the steps were done.

Getting Attention

Of course, we have seen and read very many ads, even if we weren't interested in them. Every time something makes us to read these advertisements. So it can be interesting what it might have been.


  1. The headline talked directly to you. Chances are, it used the pronouns "you" or "your". But, it didn't leave any doubt that it was talking right at and to you – and not someone down the street.

  2. The headline said it was going to do something for you. Or, it was going to show you how you could do something for yourself. The world is full of people who want to know how to do things – how to be happier, how to have a clearer complexion, how to be more secure etc.

  3. The headline made you wonder. "What's it all about?" Maybe it offered you something brand – new, different, better, or something you'd never been able to get hands on before. That's why we will see headline words such as "At last", "Now", "New", "Announcing", "Here's".

  4. The headline gives you a promise of the good things to come. For example, it can be a soap, which is kinder to your skin or a cream, which makes you to get thinner and thinner. The copywriter probably has some very good and interesting things to say about the product.

Creating Interest

Sometimes people complain about ads and commercials that bore them stiff. They hate those ads. So the copywriters try to find ways to make people be interested in the product they are advertising. It's one of the most difficult things for copywriters.

Stimulating Desire

A good piece of copy makes you want what it has to sell. This, as every good salesperson knows, is the heart of the selling proposition.

It is not enough to offer a furniture polish that will make tables glow more attractively; the ad must make the buyer see herself being complimented by her friends. It is not enough to save money or invest it wisely; ad must make the customer see themselves at the rail of cruise ship, reaping the benefits of such a saving or investment program.

Time after time, all through the history of advertising, the most successful ads as measured by their coupon returns have made the prospect see him.

What It Takes to Be a Copywriter

Writing successful advertising copy is a tough and demanding job. It takes knowledge of basic selling fundamentals; a polished writing talent; the opportunity to have learned and absorbed and benefited from the coaching of the best of the business; and it takes experience.

There are people around, including advertising people, who feel that writing successful advertising copy is not so very difficult. But studying the procedure of making ads we will understand that the copywriter picks up a pencil with the seriousness of taking a scalpel.

Writing a successful ad is much more difficult than removing an appendix; and it takes at least as much skills, knowledge, and experience. Fortunately, bungling the copywriting job won't cost someone's life – just a few thousand dollars in lost sales, somebody's job or business.

Advertising Design, Art Director and Copywriter

Nothing happens with the piece of copy until someone breaths life into it. Nothing happens with the radio commercial until sound technicians and musicians and actors do their work. And the greatest piece of newspaper or magazine copy is lifeless until someone visualizes its appearance and arranges its parts in the most effective way possible.

That "someone" is called an art director.

The fact is that no two segments of an advertising agency have so much in common as art and copy – although this may come as news to some art directors and writers. The mode of expression is different (one use a typewriter, the other a drawing pencil), but the goal is identical. Both are in the business of getting a message across with a fresh approach.

Making Layout

When art director and copywriter are satisfied that they have a good visualization for their ad, the art director proceeds to make a layout. The layout is drawn to the actual dimensions of the finished ad.

Art directors recognize a number of different elements that may play a part in the making of a layout. They are:

  • Headlines Picture caption

  • Subhead Trademark

  • Main illustration Slogan

  • Subsidiary illustration Logotype or signature

  • Body text White space

Of course, all these do not occur in every layout; but it is the art director's job to arrange the elements so that the design of the ad is eye – catching and attractive.