Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Chapter 1 Introduction
Exploration - a historical phenomenon. As craft, it is perhaps not the oldest, but surely the second. The variety of views of various historians on the social nature of intelligence and espionage combines them into one - they all agree on the fact that the secret services are at least 33 centuries. More precisely, they were born when the war began. In any military conflict, whether primitive slaughter or the Second World War, in varying degrees, of course, there is a tactical ruse, calculated to deceive the enemy. But in order to deceive and defeat the enemy, you need to know it. As a historical phenomenon, intelligence and espionage, as well as the war in different times takes different forms. Types and characters of scouts and spies change their color depending on the social and political system which they serve. History piled century in his piggy bank. In place of one of the formations came others, and the time changed the very concept of the secret service, and with it the essence of military and state secrets. Transformed and society's attitude to those who devoted his life to a dangerous profession. On the one hand, Noah, they were regarded as heroes of the invisible front, on the other - as despicable mercenaries. For centuries the word "intelligence" has been shrouded in reverence and deep respect, and the word "spy" was uttered with contempt and disgust. In the explanatory dictionary by Vladimir Dal: "Spy - the spy, spy, hidden spy, and a carrier ... Spy - soglyadat, lazutnichat, pry, listen, call that on the one hand, and send the opposite; serve as scout ... But Vladimir Dahl admits that "spying in wartime is allowed ...
Chapter 2 History of the Foreign Intelligence
Any State, as the organization of political power, as the unit of society, needs a mechanism which would protect it from encroachment on its sovereignty, integrity and power.
The most important part of this mechanism is intelligence.
Reconnaissance activities is to collect and analyze information about the alleged internal and external threats to the state and society, as well as in activities to prevent and eliminate these threats.
History of U.S. foreign intelligence began during the Second World War. According to Kim Philby, to this "secret information from other countries come in limited quantities as a result of" extraordinary "actions of American military attaches and diplomats."
In New York in 1940 was British focal point for the security of American supplies to Britain. William Stephenson, head of the organization, gave the main force in persuading Americans of the need to create your own intelligence service. He attracted interest in this from President Roosevelt. In 1942 it established the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), headed by General Donovan. At this time, involving close cooperation with British intelligence.
SSA was originally established as a research and analysis organization. Subsequently, it was to the same task to plan and carry out special operations.
After the war, all parts of SSA, except the secret intelligence service and service analysis, were dissolved. In 1945, the analytical units were transferred to the State Department, and the operational units - Ministry of War.
In his address to Congress on Mar. 12, 1947, President Truman declared that the communists threaten U.S. security. Based on the draft General Donovan, Truman recommended the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
It was openly functioning executive authority, although it lay as many duties of a secret nature.
In August 1961, was established by Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Its first director was appointed Lt. Gen. Joseph Carroll.
The main task of this organization was to ensure maximum coordination and effectiveness of intelligence work carried out by the army, air force and navy.
Chapter 3 Structure of the U.S. intelligence community
At present, according to official data in the structure of the U.S. intelligence community includes the following organizations:
I. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
II. The intelligence organizations of the Ministry of Defense
III. The intelligence organizations within the U.S. civilian agencies
IY. Headquarters Intelligence (intelligence community) or Central Intelligence.
I. Central Intelligence Agency CIA's number according to the press in 1989 exceeded 20 thousand people.
The budget of the CIA, also according to the press in 1989 amounted to $ 4 billion, and the entire community - about $ 25 billion in 1986, it was reported that the CIA's annual budget increased by 20%. In the same year in the Washington Post it was reported that in 1979 the entire intelligence budget of approximately $ 12 billion in 1986, he has more than doubled, and by 1990 will increase three-fold. In 1975, the Comptroller General of the Chief countable management (the audit arm of Congress) E. Staats has publicly stated that the budget for American intelligence (of all the intelligence organizations of the U.S.) may reach 5% of the total federal budget of the United States. In 1977, the Senate committee report for the first time, it was stated that the overall race moves into the national intelligence account for 3% of the total federal budget of the United States, the CIA and the cost is approximately 10% of the entire intelligence budget. Consequently, the total cost of U.S. intelligence in the early 90-ies were about $ 60 billion annually, while the CIA's expenditures - about $ 6 billion annually.
Structure of the CIA According to U.S. press reports the CIA consists of five major directorates and a number of independent units.
1. Operations Directorate - solves the problem of obtaining the information by human intelligence, organizes and conducts covert operations, carries out counter-intelligence software intelligence activities, is engaged in the fight against terrorism and narcotics.
The structure of the Directorate include:
- Management of foreign intelligence, supervises the operational divisions, which are divided into two groups: geographical divisions:
- Division of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe;
- Department of Latin America;
- Department of Middle East and South Asia;
- Africa Division - Department of East Asia.
Departments in areas of work:
- Department of Foreign resources (agent-operative work with the United States);
- Department of International Affairs (planning and conduct of covert paramilitary operations);
- Department of gathering information on the United States;
- Department of evasion;
- Division of businesses and others;
- Management of foreign counterintelligence - provides security intelligence and the CIA Central Intelligence th apparatus, carries out penetration of foreign intelligence services, queries defectors. In 1993, management created counterintelligence center to coordinate counterintelligence activities of all U.S. counterintelligence agencies.
- Office of covert operations - developing and implementing covert operations.
- Office of Technical Services (the "D") - provides technical support covert operations.
- Financial Planning Office - provides planning and funding of all activities of the Directorate.
- Center for Combating Terrorism - coordinates the activities of the CIA station in the fight against international terrorism.
- Center for Drug - performs analysis of all information on drugs, develops and conducts operational activities against the most dangerous drug-trafficking organizations.
2. Scientific and Technical Directorate - conducts research and development of technical means of gathering information, exploits them, maintains contacts with major research centers of the United States.
The structure of the Directorate include:
- Management of research and development of technical systems - is engaged in basic and applied research in various fields (artificial intelligence, process modeling, semiconductor systems, communications, etc.)