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Internet - Реферат

The system WAIS represents the huge distributed(allocated) database, i.e. the separate parts of this database are located on different net points worldwide. The program - client for work with servers WAIS not only is able to communicate with them under the special protocol, but also stores(keeps) the list of all databases WAIS with their addresses and names, and sometimes and with the brief descriptions. There it is possible to find archives of news, every possible catalogues, directories, collections of scientific clauses and abstracts, indexes and much another. Practically any information, for which the database is the convenient form by performances which is interesting enough to a wide audience, can be submitted in WAIS.

The database WAIS is so great, that idle time of recordings - extremely unpromising way of access to the information. Therefore in WAIS the rather complex(difficult) method of keyword search and phrases is applied. The documents received as a result of search, are sorted by the WAIS-server by quantity(amount) of entry in them of keywords and on, as far as is complete in each of them all set of the ordered keywords is submitted. Such system is capable to give good results, is especial if to break process of search at some stages.

The first stage of search usually is the search special in a database under the name "directory-of-servers", which contains small on volume of the description (abstracts) of all other bases WAIS. Thus it is better to specify not those keywords, which at the end interest you, and those general(common) concepts concerning your field of knowledge.

Having chosen on the first stage of one or several bases, it is possible to begin search actually of documents - that also it is possible to do(make) in some calls, getting acquainted after each search with results and changing the list of keywords, the necessary document will not be found yet. Besides WAIS has one useful property: if at the next stage of search you have found the document, which contents are especially close that you search, it(he) can be added to the list of the relevant documents. In result at the following stage WAIS will find the documents, not only containing a set of your keywords, but also similar on the dictionary structure on those texts, which you have specified as most suitable.

Though Netscape is capable to work with servers WAIS, for this purpose it(he) should know the address of the special proxy for the protocol WAIS, of which your provider can not appear. The special WAIS-clients working including under Windows, not only convenient for interactive search in databases, but also allows to manage services any of the server – intermediary.

URL-address for WAIS looks as:

wais: // < the address of the server > / < the name of base >


Each of the considered till now Internet protocols quite could exist in itself: telnet gives access to the programs, FTP - to files, WAIS - to databases. All these systems were created both developed almost independently from each other and put before itself the concrete purpose - to construct the mechanism of access to one certain kind of resources.

However as Internet of dews also became complicated, it(he) pushed the people to an idea, that the information on a nature is uniform and what not too reasonably to divide her(it) on different " kinds of resources " with unlike methods of access. By the end of 80-s' years the idea of a new universal remedy of work with the diverse information was carried in air.

The first system called to embody for life these dreams began Gopher, appeared on light 1991 at the American university of state Minnesota. Fundamental concept incorporated in its(her) basis was structure enclosed each other menu.

Having communicated Gopher- by the client with one of Gopher-servers, you first of all get in the root, main menu of this server. Having oriented in his(its) contents and passing further from one submenu in another, it is possible to engage actually in search of the information. The information in system Gopher is organized strictly hierarchically, "from the general to the particular". On each step the server sends yours Gopher - client not only contents of the next menu, but also service information on, where there are objects appropriate to items it the menu. The client deduces on the screen only transfer of items, but when you choose one from them, it(he), having verified with the information, available at him(it), or will send on any of Gopher - servers search about distribution of the following of the menu, or will try to establish FTP- or telnet- connection with some site Internet.

Obviously from all information tools Internet Gopher most of all is similar on WWW - both these systems are called to serve the shell with diverse resources. However Gopher is deprived of those rich representational means, which do(make) WWW not only information catalogue, but also new mass media and even by a new genre of art. It is possible to tell, that Gopher is "subset" WWW - that very much simplifies integration itself Gopher as one of kinds of resources in WWW. Practically all that is told about work with Gopher - by the client fairly and for travel on system Gopher with the help of a browser WWW.

URL of one the menu consists of items Gopher - from addresses Gopher- of the server and listed those items of the menu, which will result you in initial item:

gopher: // < the address of the server > / < item of the menu >


In spite of the fact that per the first years of the existence Gopher has won the large popularity, the need in any became ripe more simple and in too time to maximum universal system, in which communication(connection) between resources would be more free and associative. Such system was developed in 1993 and is named World Wide Web (WWW). System WWW to be under construction on concept of a hypertext, or, is exacter than hypermedia. The hypertext is a text of which component are connected with each other and to other texts with the help of the links. The hypermedia is that that will turn out from a hypertext if to replace in his(its) definition a word "text" on " any kinds of the information ": the graphic images, video, sound etc.

World Wide Web "world wide web" means literally. Why she(it) so refers to as. As it is clear from the name, she(it) is global. You not always know in what part of light there is a computer, to which you are connected. You can begin to read page Web in Dallas, then to proceed(pass) in Australia, and all this on one pressing of the button of the mouse. WWW is similar to a web. It is a complex(difficult) information network connected hypermedia by communications(connections). WWW allows to not refuse information resources already saved in Internet, other means, accessible with the help, - FTP, telnet and Gopher. It is more than that, the work with these resources through WWW is so convenient, that, say, FTP-clients, former at one time by separate class of the programs, now are used only by few.

And nevertheless main in World Wide Web is not convenience of access to FTP- of archive and Gopher-menu. The majority of servers of system WWW offer the information, which without WWW hardly in general when or would get in a network. Speed of creation and updating, the rich representational opportunities in a combination to ease of access and huge audience have made WWW by new mass media. The start WWW-servers and creation of WWW-pages already has turned of a style to new business - with all that is peculiar to modern business: by a payment for square centimeters of the advertising area.

On the other hand, the fast distribution of system so naturally uniting diverse resources, was promoted not in the last instance by its(her) origin not in недрах of a business concern, and in scientific establishment - European laboratory of physics of particles, which employees did not begin to do(make) of secrets of the development and have not tried at all on it(her) to grow rich.

Fortunately, nature WWW as first of all means of search and organization of the information allows to hope, that this remarkable invention to not turn to the tool of only one commerce and advertising.

The servers and clients WWW communicate among themselves under the special protocol HTTP (Hyper Transfer Protocol, hypertext transfer protocol). URL for WWW looks as:

http: // < the address of the server >

To pass from one page Web to another - an interesting way of research World Wide Web, however you early or late need to find something concrete. But thus it to make it will be not possible. In Internet there are special tools of Web-search.

Tools of search in WWW.

Tools of search of the information in Internet, constructed on different principles and pursuing the different purpose, exists much. But all unites them that they settle down on the specially allocated network computers with powerful channels of communication(connection), serve every minute huge quantity(amount) of the visitors and require(demand) of the owners of significant expenses on support and updating. Nevertheless, almost all of them respond on searches of the users completely бескорыстно, and the sponsors and advertisers pay for this pleasure. On scales of influence on network community of retrieval systems, undoubtedly, are one of corner stones Internet.