He was one of the first to warn against the fatal danger of fascism. Hemingway`s first feature-articles on fascism were written at the beginning of the twenties. Having traced the development of fascism in Italy, he wrote in his article called "Italy`s Fascists" that first it was an organization of counter-attackers against the communist demonstrations, then it became a political party, and now it is a political and military party that is enlisting34 the workers of Italy and invading the field of the labour organizations. In his article "Genoa Conference" he noted that the fascists "were under the tacit35 protection of the government, if not its active support", that "they had a taste of unpenalized36 lawlessness, unpunished murder, and the right to riot37 when and where they pleased". He said that Mussolini was the biggest bluff38 in Europe. For Hemingway fascism meant war first of all. "There has been war in Spain, now for two years," he wrote in an article "Programme of US Realism". "There has been war in China for a year. War is due in Europe by next summer at the latest." His prediction was right. He was also fully aware39 of the danger that fascism meant for literature: "There is only one form of government that cannot produce good writers, and that system is fascism. For fascism is a lie told by bullies40. A writer who will not lie cannot live or work under fascism."
HEMINGWAY`S IDEAS REGARDING LITERATURE AND WRITERS
Hemingway didn`t consider himself a theoretician but he made some important contributions41 to theory. He was of the opinion that art and literature play an important role in the world: "A work of art endures42 forever." Hemingway stressed the role of the writer: "Trying to write something of permanent value is a full-time job even though only a few hours a day are spent on the actual writing. A writer can be compared to a well43. There are as many kinds of wells as there are writers. The important thing is to have good water in the well and it is better to take a regular amount out than to pump44 the well dry and wait for it to refill." He paid much attention to a writer`s qualifications: "First there must be talent, much talent. Talent such as Kipling had. Then there must be discipline, the discipline of Flaubert.45 Then there must be...an absolute conscience46 as unchanging as the standard meter in Paris, to prevent faking..." He said that a writer should be a man of knowledge and experience: "There are some things which cannot be learned quickly, and time, which is all we have, must be paid heavily for their acquiring47. There are the very simplest things and because it takes a man`s life to know them the little new that each man gets from life is costly and the only her has to leave." Rich experience enabled48 him to make the following conclusion: "The hardest thing in the world to do is to write straight honest prose on human beings. First you have to know the subject: then you have to know how to write...Books should be about the people you know, that you love and hate, not about the people you study up about. If you write them truly they will have all the economic implications49 a book can hold."
Hemingway stressed the importance of truth in fiction50: "A writer`s job is to tell the truth. His standard of fidelity51 to the truth should be so high that his experience, should produce a truer account than anything factual can be."
Hemingway made a careful study of both American and European literary and cultural traditions. He thoroughly studied the works of many writers, among them Flaubert, Stendhal52, Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Chekhov, Maupassant, Dante, Virgil and many others. Hemingway considered among his "teachers" many painters and composers as well. The writer said he learned as much from painters about how to write as from writers, and that "what one learns from composers and from the study of harmony and counterpoint53" should be obvious54. He repeatedly stressed the importance which Russian literature had had for him.
HEMINGWAY`S STYLE OF WRITING
Hemingway`s aim to write absolute truth induced him to create a new style. He avoided conventional narration 55in his stories. He tried to make readers understand his ideas about nature, labour, and war by sketching in vivid scenes his own experience in war, and tell his readers about the peasants and fishermen by presenting real scenes of hard toil56. Leaving out many unnecessary details Hemingway mastered a new short-story form. Some of these short stories he used for his novels. That`s the way all my novels got started," he said.
The language of Hemingway`s works is of bare57 simplicity; it is in keeping with the characters he wanted to portray58. It is surprising how he reveals59 the inner60 world of his personages in short dialogues and colloquial phrases. Plain words in simple declarative61 sentences bring out the sensations of the central characters and at the same time make the reader participate in the events of the story. "I use the oldest words in the English language." Hemingway said.
Hemingway was the inventor of the so-called "theory of an iceberg": he wrote that"...if a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about , he may omit things that he knows, and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things, as strongly as though the writer has stated them. The dignity62 of movement of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water."
Leo Lania, Hemingway`s biographer, wrote: "Many serious and important authors have learnt from him; from his incorruptible objectivity, his exceptional gift of observation; from his language, as clear as the mountain stream which reveals each single pebble63 on the bottom. He has done more than anybody else to strip American literature of sentimentality and free American prose from bombast64 and artificial pathos. He has shown a complete generation of authors how to write natural and unliterary dialogue with a rhythm and authenticity65 which few other, contemporary novelists have equaled."
The used material:
"English and American Literature". A course of lectures. Л.Н. Утевская. 2004
"Эрнест Хемингуэй. Биография и творчество". Артуро Паскаль. 2006
The internet: www.lostgeneration.com
3 a keen observer―острый наблюдатель (критик)
8 a suburb―пригород
9 "wide lawns and narrow minds"―"широкие лужайки и узкие умы"
10 a seediness―захудалость
12 a fondness―любовь, нежность
13 cub reporter ― a young and inexperienced journalist, a beginner
14 to absorb―поглощать
16 belly empty―пустой живот
17 " hollow hungry"― "голодная пустота"
20 a treachery―предательство
21 a selfishness―эгоизм
22 a chauffeur―шофёр
23 to chase―преследовать
24 a tribute―дань
25 a narrow escape―спасение по счастливой случайности
26 to deteriorate―ухудшаться
27 a cottonwood―тополь
28 a trout―форель
29 a preface―предисловие
30 mismanaged―неумело проведенная
31 a participation―участие
32 a profit―прибыль
33 a charge―обвинение
34 to enlist―вербовать
36 unpenalized―не оштрафованный
37 a riot―бунт
38 a bluff―блеф
39 to aware―знать
40 a bully―хулиган
41 a contribution―вклад
42 to endure―выдерживать испытание времени
43 a well―колодец, родник
44 a pump―насос
45 Flaubert Gustave (1821-1880) ― French realist writer, author of the novel "Madame Bovary".
46 a conscience―совесть
47 an acquiring―приобретение
48 to enable―позволить
49 an implication―значение
50 a fiction―беллетристика
51 a fidelity ―верность
52 Stendhal ― pen-name of Henri Beyle (1783-1842), French novelist..
53 a counterpoint―контрапункт
55 a conventional narration―обычное повествование
56 a toil―тяжелый труд
58 to portray―изображать
59 to reveal―показать
62 a dignity―достоинство
63 a pebble―галька, камешек
64 a bombast―напыщенность
65 an authenticity―подлинность