... відкритий, безкоштовний архів рефератів, курсових, дипломних робіт

ГоловнаІноземна мова - Англійська, Німецька та інші → Food - Реферат

Food - Реферат

The history of the hamburger dates back to medieval Europe. A Tartar dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with salt and onion juice was brought from Russia to Germany by early German sailors. The lightly broiled German chopped-beef cake, with pickles and pumpernickel on the side, was introduced to America in the early 1800s by German immigrants in the Midwest.


It was early Dutch settlers and the Pennsylvania Germans who introduced the yeasty, deep-fried doughnut to America. To the Dutch it was a festive food, eaten for breakfast on Shrove Sunday.

Legend has it that doughnut got its hole in 1847 when Hanson Gregory, a lad later to become a sea captain, complained to his mother that her fried cakes were raw in the center and poked hole4s in the next batch before they were cooked.

During World War I, when the Salvation Army served them to the troops, doughnuts really took off as popular fare. Since then, coffee and doughnuts become a national institution. Stores sell them plain, sugared, frosted, honey-dipped, or jam-filled.

Apple pie13

At its best, with a savory filling and crisp, light-brown crust, apple pie has long been favorite on American tables.

Apples and apple seems were among the precious supplies the early colonists brought to the New World. The first large apple orchards were planted near Boston by William Blaxton in the 1600s. When he moved to Rhode Island in 1635, he developed the tart Rhode Island Greening, still considered one of America's finest apple pies.

As the fruit became abundant, many settlers ate apple pie at every meal. Garnished with a chunk of cheese, it was a favorite colonial breakfast dish. By the 18th century apple pie became so popular that Yale College in New Haven served it every night at supper for more than 100 years.

America's love affair with apple pie has remained constant. Today's housewives, pressed for time, can shortcut the tradition by buying the pastry ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets. Many variation on the good old original are available, but the classical apple pie, irresistible when topped with a slice of rat-trap cheese or slathered with vanilla ice cream, is still America's favorite.

Potato chips.13

George Crumb, an American Indian who was the chef at Moon's Lake House in Saratoga Springs, New York, in the mid-19th century, was irked when a

finicky dinner guest kept sending back his French fried potatoes, complaining they were too thick. In exasperation, Crumb shaved the potatoes into tissue-thin slice and deep-fried them in oil. He had a dishful of crisp "Saratoga chips" presented to the guest, who was delighted with the new treat.

Potato chips became the specialty of Moon's Lake House and, later, America's crunchiest between-meal snack.


America's best known soft drink was first concocted by an Atlanta pharmacist in 1886. The syrup was cooked up by John S. Pemberton from extracts of coca leaves and the kola nut. He then organized the Pemberton Chemical Company, and Coca-Cola syrup mixed with plain water was sold in a local drug-store for 5 cents a glass.

Sales were slow until in 1887 a prosperous Atlanta druggist, Asa G. Candler, bought the Coca-Cola formula – then as now a carefully guarded secret – and added carbonate water to the syrup instead of plain water.

Advertisement stressing the words "delicious" and "refreshing" and carry coupons for free Coca-Cola added to the increase in consumption. A system of independent local bottling companies was developed, and the flared bottle, familiar worldwide and said to resemble the hobble skirt, was designed in 1916.

In 1919 the company was sold out for $25 million to a group headed by Ernest Woodruff. Under his son, Robert W. Woodruff, Coca-Cola rapidly expanded its market. By the mid-1970s more than 150 million Cokes a day were sold in country all over the world.

Today Coca-Cola has to compete with many other soft drinks, but it is still one of the symbols of the United States.

Kazakh traditional dishes.15

The mode of life of people, traditional craft, interrelations. Customs and traditions are, perhaps, well comprehended through traditional dishes. The

methods of cooking, which the Kazakh people used were closely linked with the culture and mode of life. The table manners of nomads, filled with so many customs, rituals, special behavior find its place in our time. The strict nomadic life laws have created moral and ethic norm. The whole clan and tribe shared the joys and sorrows of life, any unexpected traveler was an honored guest. Any steppe inhabitant knew, that he was a welcome guest and had a right to his share. This steppe tradition was strictly observed and is still observed today by the host. Some time later this violation merited a sort of punishment. That explains why every host regarded the ritual of hospitality as sacred rule and welcomed guests warmly and with all attention and kindly saw them off with good wishes.

The main traditional dish of Kazakh is besbarmak. It is mostly served for the guests and eaten by hands (bes barmak – means five finger). Besbarmak is usually cooked of fat mutton and parts of smoked horse meat and horse delicacies like kazy and shyzhyk. The meat is boiled and separately is boiled thin paste. Boiled parts of meat are put on the paste and spiced with a special flavoring called tuzduk. As the custom demands the host serves the meal in special crockey – tabak. The bas-tabak, which is placed before the most honourable guests is used to serve the mutton head, zhambas, horse meat delicacy and other fatty parts. The esteemed guest (usually the oldest one) cuts bit and part from the head and offers them to the other guests at the table. The secret of distribution of parts of the meat from the head lies in traditional wishes. When given the palate, it expresses the wish – "be wise and eloquent", the larynx – a gift to sing, skin of forehead – "be the first among equals". Meanwhile one or two dzhigits (young man), sitting next to the esteemed guest start cutting the boiled parts of meat to pieces and the dish is again spiced with tuzdyk. The guests are offered to help themselves to the dish. The youth and children usually sit at sides of the table dastarkhan. They receive meat directly

from the elders. The custom is called asatu and symbolized the desire of the youth to experience the long and good life the elders have experienced. When all the meat and sorpa ( soup with large fat content) have been eaten and drank, the most respected guest thanks the hostess on behalf of all the guests and blesses the hosts of that house.

In our days the main features of this old ritual and table etiquette exist, are carefully kept, followed and passes to their traditions.

Food is Symbolic.16

Throughout history, food has been used as a symbol of wealth or gratitude, or to demonstrate position and power. In some cultures, eating lavish and exotic meals is a sign of wealth and power, whereas eating only the basic foods is a of sign belonging to a more common class. In some cultures, the offer of a glass of cool, clean water is the greatest compliment or honor one can receive. In some cultures, whenever you receive s guest, whether for business or pleasure, you must offer them something to eat or drink: the more lavish the offering signifies the amount of respect or honor you give that person. Diet is not a consideration.

For centuries, food has been a key element in religious rituals. Food was used as offering to the gods and their high priests and priestesses. Food has been considered a form of tithing to a church or religious sect. Certain foods such as lamp, bread, and bitter herbs are religious symbols in some ceremonies.

The sharing of food demonstrates acceptance, friendship, family, and love. To be invited to "break bread" with a family, in many cultures shows respect and is a sign of friendship and acceptance. Literature is full of examples of lovers using food to show their devotion and respect foe each other: one of the most famous being the line from the Rubaiyal of Omar Khayyam, " A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread – and Thou..." in the West, chocolate and sweets have long been a symbolic exchange of affection between lovers. So, why do we eat the things we do? First, let's established that not everything we like to meat is all that good for us, unfortunately. For example, there is much debate over the value of chocolate – yes, it does have some redeeming qualities aside from just tasting wonderful.

Food as a Fad or Cult.17

Food has often found a niche for itself in popular culture. Eating or entertaining with certain foods has often been a fad or cult. Whichever group you associate with or aspire to be like will dictate which fad you follow. For example, in the late "70s and 80s in the U.S., salads were the "in" food for the yuppie crowd (the young, upwardly-mobile group). Salad bars (restaurants where salad is the primary food) sprang up everywhere. There were so many types of salads, garnishes, and salad dressings that were invented, it was impossible to keep up with them all.

Of course many people ate salads because they were on diets. Thin was "in" and so everyone who was "in" or aspiring to be "in" wanted to lose weight. Actually, throughout most of the '80s and 90s there has been an obsession with dieting. Now, however, dieting is not a politically correct word. There are so many schemes and foods out in the stores for people to use lose weight; there are even substances that promise if you take them you can eat all you want and still lose weight.