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Comparative Adjectives - Реферат

Comparative Adjectives

When we talk about 2 things, we can "compare" them. We can see if they are the same or different. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways.

A B

We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences. "A is bigger than B."

Formation of Comparative Adjectives

There are two ways to form a comparative adjective:

  • short adjectives: add '-er'

  • long adjectives: use 'more'

Short adjectives

  • 1-syllable adjectives

old, fast

  • 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y

happy, easy

Normal rule: add '-er'

old > older

Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just add -r

late > later

Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant

big > bigger

Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the -y to -i

happy > happier

Long adjectives

  • 2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y

modern, pleasant

  • all adjectives of 3 or more syllables

expensive, intellectual

Normal rule: use 'more'

modern > more modernexpensive > more expensive

Tip. With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-er' or 'more':

  • quiet > quieter/more quiet

  • clever > cleverer/more clever

  • narrow > narrower/more narrow

  • simple > simpler/more simple

Exception! The following adjectives have irregular forms:

  • good > better

  • well (healthy) > better

  • bad > worse

  • far > farther/further

Use of Comparative Adjectives

We use comparative adjectives when talking about 2 things (not 3 or 10 or 1,000,000 things, only 2 things).

Often, the comparative adjective is followed by 'than'.

Look at these examples:

  • John is 1m80. He is tall. But Chris is 1m85. He is taller than John.

  • America is big. But Russia is bigger.

  • I want to have a more powerful computer.

  • Is French more difficult than English?

If we talk about the two planets Earth and Mars, we can compare them like this:

Earth

Mars

Diameter (km)

12,760

6,790

Mars is smaller than Earth.

Distance from Sun (million km)

150

228

Mars is more distant from the Sun.

Length of day (hours)

24

25

A day on Mars is slightly longer than a day on Earth.

Moons

1

2

Mars has more moons than Earth.

Surface temperature (°C)

22

-23

Mars is colder than Earth.

Superlative Adjectives

Comparison is between 2 things: "A is bigger than B."

A B

But the superlative is the extreme between 3 or more things. "A is the biggest."

A B C

Formation of Superlative Adjectives

As with comparative adjectives, there are two ways to form a superlative adjective:

  • short adjectives: add '-est'

  • long adjectives: use 'most'

We also usually add 'the' at the beginning.

Short adjectives

1-syllable adjectives

old, fast

2-syllable adjectives ending in -y

happy, easy

Normal rule: add '-est'

old > the oldest

Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just add -st

late > the latest

Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant

big > the biggest

Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the -y to -i

happy > the happiest

Long adjectives

2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y

modern, pleasant

all adjectives of 3 or more syllables

expensive, intellectual

Normal rule: use 'most'

modern > the most modernexpensive > the most expensive

Tip With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-est' or 'most':

  • quiet > the quietest/most quiet

  • clever > the cleverest/most clever

  • narrow > the narrowest/most narrow

  • simple > the simplest/most simple

Exception! The following adjectives have irregular forms:

  • good > the best

  • bad > the worst

  • far > the furthest

Use of Superlative Adjectives

We use a superlative adjective to describe 1 thing in a group of 3 or more things.

Look at these examples:

  • John is 1m75. David is 1m80. Chris is 1m85. Chris is the tallest.

  • America, China and Russia are big countries. But Russia is the biggest.

  • Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

If we talk about the three planets Earth, Mars and Jupiter, we can use superlatives like this:

Earth

Mars

Jupiter

Diameter (km)

12,760

6,790

142,800

Jupiter is the biggest.

Distance from Sun (million km)

150

228

778

Jupiter is the most distant from the Sun.

Length of day (hours)

24

25

10

Jupiter has the shortest day.

Moons

1

2

16

Jupiter has the most moons.

Surface temperature (°C)

22

-23

-150

Jupiter is the coldest.

When we compare one thing with itself, we do not use "the":

  • England is coldest in winter. (not the coldest)

  • My boss is most generous when we get a big order. (not the most generous)

Comparison of Adverbs

There are 2 ways how the adverbs form their comparative and superlative.

1. Adverbs in -ly form their comparative and superlative with more and most. (But not early)

Could you say that more slowly, please?Tom can shoot the most accurately.You will just have to get up earlier.

2. Adverbs with the same form as adjectives form their comparative and superlative with -er and -est.

Sarah run the fastest.

Some adverbs form their comparative and superlative irregularly.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

badly

worse

worst

well

better

best

little

less

least

far

farther, further

farthest, furthest

much

more

most

Comparison as...as, less etc.

We use as...as to compare 2 things that are the same in the same way.I cannot do crosswords as quickly as you.

Less and least are the opposites of more and most. The old man's son visits him less often nowadays.

We can repeat a comparative after and to talk about a change in something else.They went faster and faster down the hill.

We use the+comparative to talk about a change in one thing which causes a change in something else.The more you practise, the better you will play.

Ten sentences:

    1. I am not the tallest student in our group.

    2. James Hetfield plays electric guitar much better than I.

    3. I think that tomorrow it will be colder than today.

    4. On my girlfriend's birthday I bought the most expensive present I could afford.

    5. Sevastopol is the most picturesque city in Crimea.

    6. T-1 line Internet connection is much faster than dial-up one, however it is more expensive.

    7. The more I study, the better will be results.

    8. On average, people eat about twice as much proteins as they need.

    9. Calculus is simpler than statistics.

10) Mice are smaller than elephants.

Text(~1500 symbols):

The first computers with their electronics filled more room than up-to-date computers do. Photographs of early computers show men and women in business suits and laboratory coats standing in the middle of a room surrounded by a U-shape machine. In reality, people operating and developing the first computers did not wear suits. Air-conditioning was poorer than people needed and they dressed in T-shirts and tennis shoes.

The development of the transistor in 1948 made it possible to build smaller electronic devices. Computers became smaller and smaller and in our days personal computer can easily be fitted on the desk. Notebooks have less size than personal computers and they widely used by businessmen. For the most pretentious people engineers created a Pocket personal computer that can find room in pocket. Pocket PC is the smallest PC, on the other hand, it is the slowest and the least powerful than other personal computers. For people who do not need features like Infrared or Bluetooth connection or color display that offers Pocket PC, Palm designed small electronic organizer. It has fewer features and it is less powerful than Pocket PC, but it is also less expensive.

Computer designers are trying to create more friendly interface computer, because it is sold better. The one of the most important factors is a noise uttered by computer. Nobody likes noise and people are ready to pay more to buy quieter PC.

The progress never stops and smaller, more powerful and quieter computers will appear soon.

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