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Women’s Health and Smoking - Реферат

  • Encourage the reporting of gender-specific results from studies of influences on smoking behavior, smoking prevention and cessation interventions, and the health effects of tobacco use, including use of new tobacco products — Research is needed to better understand and to reduce current disparities in smoking prevalence among women of different groups as defined by socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Women with only 9 to 11 years of education are about three times as likely to be smokers as are women with a college education. American Indian or Alaska Native women are much more likely to smoke than are Hispanic women and Asian or Pacific Islander women. Among teenage girls, white girls are much more likely to smoke than are African American girls.

    • Determine why, during most of the 1990s, smoking prevalence declined so little among women and increased so markedly among teenage girls — This lack of progress is a major concern and threatens to prolong the epidemic of smoking-related diseases among women. More research is needed to determine the influences that encourage many women and girls to smoke even in the face that all that is known of the dire health consequence of smoking. If, for example, smoking in movies by female celebrities promotes smoking, then discouraging such practices as well as engaging well-known actresses to be spokespersons on the issue of women and smoking should be a high priority.

    • Develop a research and evaluation agenda related to women and smoking — Research agendas should focus on these issues:

      • Determining whether gender-tailored interventions increase the effectiveness of various smoking prevention and cessation methods.

      • Documenting whether there are gender differences in the effectiveness of pharmacologic treatments for tobacco cessation.

      • Determining which tobacco prevention and cessation interventions are most effective for specific subgroups of girls and women.

      • Designing interventions to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence across all subgroups of girls and women.

    • Support efforts, at both individual and societal levels, to reduce smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among women. Tobacco-use treatments are among the most cost-effective of preventive health interventions at the individual level, and they should be part of all women's health care programs. Health insurance plans should cover such services. Societal strategies to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke include counteradvertising, increasing tobacco taxes, enacting laws to reduce minors' access to tobacco products, and banning smoking in work sites and in public places.

    • Enact comprehensive statewide tobacco control programs proven to be effective in reducing and preventing tobacco use — Results from states such as Arizona, California, Florida, Maine, Massachusetts, and Oregon show that science-based tobacco control programs have successfully reduced smoking rates among women and girls. California established a comprehensive statewide tobacco control program more than 10 years ago, and is now starting to observe the benefits of its sustained efforts. Between 1988 and 1997, the incidence rate of lung cancer among women declined by 4.8% in California but increased by 13.2% in other regions of the United States.

    • Increase efforts to stop the emerging epidemic of smoking among women in developing countries Strongly encourage and support multinational policies that discourage the spread of smoking and tobacco-related diseases among women in countries where smoking prevalence has traditionally been low. It is urgent that what is already known about effective means of tobacco control at the societal level be disseminated throughout the world.

    • Support the World Health Organization's Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) — The FCTC is an international legal instrument designed to curb the global spread of tobacco use through specific protocols – currently being negotiated – that relate to tobacco pricing, smuggling, advertising, sponsorship, and other activities.

New European anti-smoking campaign

The European Commission is launching a new multi-million dollar anti-smoking campaign. It comes as the world's first ever treaty aimed at dissuading children from smoking and helping adults kick the habit enters into force this week.

The European Commission will spend about ninety five million dollars over the next four years trying to prevent children and young adults from smoking. That's a big increase on the twenty five million dollars it spent on its last anti-smoking campaign.

But it's an amount that's dwarfed by the multi-billion dollar financial clout of the tobacco industry, even though companies like British-American tobacco say they support efforts to reduce the incidents of youth smoking across Europe.

The Commission's latest campaign ties in with a global anti-smoking treaty which came into force on Sunday and which requires that governments take tough measures against the promotion of tobacco. The Commission's already spent money on a logo and slogan both of which will be unveiled at the launch of the anti-smoking campaign on Tuesday and which will be followed up by a series of EU wide TV and cinema adverts.

The campaign comes on top of existing efforts to curb tobacco use. The Commission is encouraging countries to put picture warnings on cigarette packets which would feature photos of blackened lungs and from July this year tobacco firms will be banned from advertising at sporting events such as formula one car racing.

Quitting Smoke and Attempts to Quit

More than three-fourths (75.2%) of women want to quit smoking completely, and nearly half (46.6%) report having tried to quit during the previous year.

In 1998, the percentage of people who had ever smoked and who had quit was lower among women (46.2%) than among men (50.9%). This finding may be because men began to stop smoking earlier in the 20th century than did women and because these data do not take into account that men are more likely than women to switch to, or to continue to use, other tobacco products when they stop smoking.

Since the late 1970s or early 1980s, the probability of attempting to quit smoking and succeeding has been equal among women and men.


Smoking is need to be reduced not only among women, but also among young people, children and men. Anti-smoking campaigns should be held in schools and universities, in offices and factories. Reducing and absence of smoking among the youth is one of the main factors of healthy generation. People should understand the harm of this bad habit to do everything for smoke quitting, and such first step will bring health and good future.


  1. Smoking and youth, A.Gorin, Moscow, Publishers - Alta-Press, 2001

  2. D.Satcher: "A Report of the Surgeon General", the article from the magazine "National Geographic", 05.1998

  3. Tobacco against people. People against tobacco, F.Healey, London, Penguin Group, 2002

  4. Woman's Health, A.Documentova, Moscow, Publishers – EKSMO, 2005

  5. www.cdc.gov


  1. New Russian-English dictionary, V.Muller, Publishers – Alta-Press, 2003

  2. English-Russian dictionary, V.Muller, Moscow, Publishers – Russian Language, 1999