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Women’s Health and Smoking - Реферат

Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Федеральное Агентство по Образованию Государственное Образовательное Учреждение Высшего Профессионального Образования Череповецкий Государственный Университет

Гуманитарный Институт Кафедра Английской Филологии Специальность 031001 - филология

Реферат: "Women's Health and Smoking"

Выполнила: Толоконцева Н.А. Группа: 2ФА-24 Проверила: ст.преп. Швец В.М.

Череповец, 2005

Report: Women's health and smoking


  1. Introduction

  2. Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

  3. History of Advertising Strategies

  4. Health Consequence of Tobacco Use Among Women

  • Diseases:

              • Lung Cancer

              • Other Cancers

              • Cardiovascular Disease

              • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Lung Function

              • Menstrual Function

              • Bone Density and Fracture Risk

  • Other Conditions

  • Health Consequences of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Smoking and Reproductive Outcomes, Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant Women

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Reproductive Outcomes

Smoking Prevalence and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy

What Is Need to Reduce Smoking Among Women

New European anti-smoking campaign

Quitting Smoke and Attempts to Quit


The Literature List


This report summarizes what is now known about smoking among women, including patterns and trends in smoking habits, factors associated with starting to smoke and continuing to smoke, the consequences of smoking on women's health and interventions for ending and prevention. What the report also makes clear is how the tobacco industry has historically and contemporarily created marketing specifically targeted at women. Smoking is the leading known cause of preventable death and disease among women. In 2000, far more women died of lung cancer than of breast cancer. A number of things need to be acted on to control the epidemic of smoking and smoking-related diseases among women throughout the world.

Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

Cigarette smoking was rare among women in the early 20th century. Cigarette smoking became prevalent among women after it did among men, and smoking prevalence has always been lower among women than among men. However, the gender-specific difference in smoking prevalence narrowed between 1965 and 1985. Since 1985, the decline in prevalence among men and women has been comparable.

Smoking prevalence decreased among women from 33.9% in 1965 to 22.0% in 1998. Most of this decline occurred from 1974 through 1990; prevalence declined very little from 1992 through 1998.

The prevalence of current smoking is three times higher among women with 9-11 years of education (32.9%) than among women with 16 or more years of education (11.2%).

Smoking prevalence is higher among women living below the poverty level (29.6%) than among those living at or above the poverty level (21.6%).

Girls who initiate smoking are more likely than those who do not smoke to have parents or friends who smoke. They also tend to have weaker attachments to parents and family and stronger attachments to peers and friends. They perceive smoking prevalence to be higher than it actually is, are inclined to risk taking and rebelliousness, have a weaker commitment to school or religion, have less knowledge of the adverse consequences of smoking and the addictiveness of nicotine, believe that smoking can control weight and negative moods, and have a positive image of smokers.

Women who continue to smoke and those who fail at attempts to stop smoking tend to have lower education and employment levels than do women who quit smoking. They also tend to be more addicted to cigarettes, as evidenced by the smoking of a higher number of cigarettes per day, to be cognitively less ready to stop smoking, to have less social support for stopping, and to be less confident in resisting temptations to smoke.

The level of nicotine dependence is strongly associated with the quantity of cigarettes smoked per day.

When results are stratified by the number of cigarettes smoked per day, girls and women who smoke appear to be equally dependent on nicotine, as measured by first cigarette after waking, smoking for a calming and relaxing effect, withdrawal symptoms, or other measures of nicotine dependence.

Of the women who smoke, more than three-fourths report one or more indicators of nicotine dependence, and nearly three-fourths report feeling dependent on cigarettes.

History of Advertising Strategies

One of the most common advertisement themes in developed countries is that smoking is both a passport to and a symbol of the independence and success of the modern women.

Tobacco industry marketing is a factor influencing susceptibility to and initiation of smoking among girls, in the United States and overseas. Myriad examples of tobacco ads and promotions targeted to women indicate that such marketing is dominated by themes of social desirability and independence. These themes are conveyed through ads featuring slim, attractive, athletic models, images very much at odds with the serious health consequences experienced by so many women who smoke.

Women have been extensively targeted in tobacco marketing, and tobacco companies have produced brands specifically for women, both in the United States and overseas. Myriad examples of tobacco ads and promotions targeted to women indicated that such marketing is dominated by themes of both social desirability and independence, which are conveyed through ads featuring slim, attractive, athletic models. Between 1995 and 1998, expenditures for domestic cigarette advertising and promotion increased from $4.90 billion to $6.73 billion. Tobacco industry marketing, including product design, advertising, and promotional activities, is a factor influencing susceptibility to and initiation of smoking.

The dependence of the media on revenues from tobacco advertising oriented to women, coupled with tobacco company sponsorship of women's fashions and of artistic, athletic, political, and other events, has tended to stifle media coverage of the health consequences of smoking among women and to mute criticism of the tobacco industry by women public figures.

Tobacco advertising geared toward women began in the 1920s. By the mid-1930s, cigarette advertisements targeting women were becoming so commonplace that one advertisement for the mentholated Spud brand had the caption "To read the advertisements these days, a fellow'd think the pretty girls do all the smoking." As early as the 1920s, tobacco advertising geared toward women included messages such as "Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet" to establish an association between smoking and slimness. The positioning of Lucky Strike as an aid to weight control led to a greater than 300% increase in sales for this brand in the first year of the advertising campaign.

Through World War II, Chesterfield advertisements regularly featured glamour photographs of a Chesterfield girl of the month, usually a fashion model or a Hollywood star such as Rita Hayworth, Rosalind Russell, or Betty Grable. The number of women aged 18 through 25 years who began smoking increased significantly in the mid-1920s, the same time that the tobacco industry mounted the Chesterfield and Lucky Strike campaigns directed at women. The trend was most striking among women aged 18 though 21. The number of women in this age group who began smoking tripled between 1911 and 1925 and had more than tripled again by 1939.

In 1968, Philip Morris marketed Virginia Slims cigarettes to women with an advertising strategy showing canny insight into the importance of the emerging women's movement. The slogan "You've come a long way, Baby" later gave way to "It's a woman thing" in the mid-1990s, and more recently the "Find your voice" campaign featuring women of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The underlying message of these campaigns has been that smoking is related to women's freedom, emancipation, and empowerment.

Initiation rates among girls aged 14 though 17 years rapidly increased in parallel with the combined sales of the leading women's-niche brands (Virginia Slims, Silva Thins, and Eve) during this period.