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The history of English - Реферат

We think of June as the month of brides and roses, but to the Anglo-Saxons it was "Sere-Monath", the "dry month".

"July" is the month of Julius Caesar. The month began to be called that in the year when Julius Caesar was killed.

The English called July "Maed-Monath", "meadow month", because the meadows are in bloom in July.

Now, comes "August". This month was once called "sexillis", as it was the sixth month from March, with which, as you remember, the year once opened. It was then changed into August in honour of the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar, the nephew of Julius Caesar. This man was chosen by Julius Caesar as his heir, he took the name Caesar, and was given the title "Augustus" by the Roman Senate. This month was "a lucky Month" for Augustus Caesar. By the way, Augustus refused to have fewer days in his month of August than there were in the month of July. So he borrowed a day from February and added it to August; that is why August has 31 days.

The Old English name for August was "Wead-Monath", the month of weeds. You know, the Old English word "weed" meant vegetation in generale.

"September", "October", "November" and "December" are just "seventh", "eighth", "ninth" and "tenth" months of the year. You remember that before the Romans changed their calendar, March was the first month.

The English had more descriptive names for these month. September was called "Harfest-Monath", "the harvest month". October was "Win-Monath", "the wine month". November was "Bloo-Monath", because in November the English sacrificed cattle to their gods. December was "Mid-Winter-Monath", because this month was the middle month of winter.

C). Germanic tribes.

At the beginning of the 5th century the Romans left the islands, they had tо save their own country from barbarians. If you want to know what events followed after that, turn on the Time Machine again. So, here we are, in the 5th century, This is the time of the birth of the English language. Тhe Germanic tribes of Angles, Sаxоns and Jutes invaded thе misty fertile island. Some of the native Britons were killed, mаnу others fled from the invaders "аs from fire" into the hillу parts of the country. Anglеs, Saxons аnd Jutes spread all over the fertile lаnds of the Isles. Gradually thеу bесаmе one nation - English. They developed one language - English. As historians write, "thе English language arrived in Britain on the point of а sword"! The реорlе оf that timе of thе history аrе called Аng1о-Sахоns, their language is оld English оr Ang1о-Saxon as well.

Тhе next destination оf оur Тimе Масhinе is the 7th century, when Christiаnity was introducеd in Britain, monasteries with sсhools аnd libraries were set uр all оver thе соuntry. Тhе English language was considerably enriched bу the Latin woгds.

Now, with the help of the Тimе Масhinе we'll fly over into the 8th сеntuгу. Аt this time the ancient Scandinavians, cаlled the Vikings, began to гаid Britаin. Тhе Vikings continued thеir wars with the English until the timе the Ang1о-Saxоn king Alfred thе Great made а treaty with them аnd gave them а раrt of the country, that was саlled "Danelaw". Тhе Vikings settled thеrе, married Еnglish wives аnd bеgan peaceful life on the territory of Britain. Later military conflicts resumed again, but by the 11th century they were over. The influence of these events оn the English lаnguagе was great, indeed. А lаrge number of Scandinavian words саmе intо Еnglish from "Danes" as thе Ang1o-Saxons called all the Vikings.

One reason why Roman Britannia disappeared so quickly is probably that its influence was largely confined to the towns. In the countryside, where most people lived, farming methods had remained unchanged and Celtic speech continued to be dominant.

The Roman occupation had been a matter of colonial control rather than large-scale settlement. But, during the fifth century, a number of tribes from the north-western European mainland invaded and settled in large numbers. Two of these tribes were the Angles and the Saxons. These Anglo-Saxons soon had the south-east of the country in their grasp. In the west of the country their advance was temporarily halted by an army of Celtic Britons under the command of the legendary King Arthur. Nevertheless, by the end of the sixth century, they and their way of life predominated in nearly all of England and in parts of southern Scotland. The Celtic Britons were either Saxonized or driven westwards, where their culture and language survived in south-west Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.

The Anglo-Saxons had little use for towns and cities. But they had a great effect on the countryside, where they introduced new farming methods and founded the thousands of self-sufficient villages which formed the basis of English society for the next thousand or so years.

The Anglo-Saxons were pagan when they came to Britain. Christianity spread throughout Britain from two different directions during the sixth and seventh centuries. It came directly from Rome when St Augustine arrived in 597 and established his headquarters at Canterbury in the south-east of England. It had already been introduced into Scotland and northern England from Ireland, which had become Christian more than 150 years earlier. Although Roman Christianity eventually took over the whole of the British Isles, the Celtic model persisted in Scotland and Ireland for several hundred years. It was less centrally organized, and had less need for a strong monarchy to support it. This partly explains why both secular and religious power in these two countries continued to be both more locally based and less secure than it was elsewhere in Britain throughout the medieval period.

Britain experience another wave of Germanic invasions in the 8th century. These invaders, known as Vikings, Horsemen or Danes, came from Scandinavia. In the ninth century they conquered and settled the extreme north and west of Scotland, and also some coastal regions of Ireland. Their conquest of England was halted when they were defeated by King Alfred of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex. This resulted in an agreement which divided England between Wessex, in the south and west, and the "Danelaw" in the north and east.

However, the cultural differences between Anglo-Saxons and Danes were comparatively small. They led roughly the same way of life and spoke two varieties of the same Germanic tongue (which combined to form the basis of modern English). Moreover, the Danes soon converted to Christianity. These similarities made political unification easier, and by the end of the 10th century England was one kingdom with a Germanic culture throughout.

Most of modern-day Scotland was also united by this time, at least in name, in a Gaelic kingdom.

Paopla in Anglo-Saxon times. Living uncomfortably close to the natural world, were wall aware that though creation is inarticulate it is animate, and that every created thing, every "with", had its own personality.

The riddle is a sophisticated and harmless for of invocation by imitation: the essence of it is that the poet, by an act of imaginative identification assumes the personality of some crested thing - an animal, a plant, a natural force.

The specialists consider that they know not enough about The Exeter Book collection of riddles. Ridding was certainly a popular pastime among the Anglo-Saxons, especially in the monasteries, and there are extant collections (in Latin, of course,) from the pens of Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, Tatwin, Archbishop of Canterbury and others.

The provenance and genesis of the collection are unknown, and from internal evidence one can only draw the modest conclusion that the ninety-five riddles were not written by one man.

In English a student and the little black circle in the center of the eye are both called "pupils"? And the connection between them is a doll. Both the words came into the English language through French from the Latin. In Latin there was a word "pupa" – "a girl", and "pupus" – " a boy". When the Latin ending "illa" was added to "pupa" or "pupus", the word meant " a little girl" or " a little boy". Since little girls and little boys went to school, they became "pupils".

But "pupilla", a little girl, also meant "a doll". It is easy to understand why, isn't it? Now, if you look into the pupil of someone's eye when the light is just right, you can see your reflection. Your figure, by the way, is very, very small like a tiny doll. The Romans named the black circle in the eye "pupilla" because of the doll they could see there. And the word came into the English as "pupil" as well. And thus, we have in the English language two words that are spelt the same and have the same origin, but mean different things: "pupil" – a student, and "pupil" – a black circle in the center of your eye.

Professor casts a quick glance at the wall and noticed a map there. "This map is made of paper. But the word itself meant cloth once. This word came into English from Latin, the Latin mappa was cloth. First maps were drawn on fabrics. In Latin the combination of the words appeared: mappa mundi – "cloth of the word". It was the first representation of the world as a drawing on the cloth. Later maps began to be made of paper, but the word remained.