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Экономические отношения между Россией и Казахстаном - Реферат

Feature of transport -geographical interregional links of regions of Russia with Kazakhstan is the directedness mutual goods traffic primarily with Ural, Western and East Siberia, and also with Moscow and Moscow region.

The important place in the Russia -Kazakhstan links occupies frontier cooperating, on which share it is necessary 71,5 % from common commodity circulation. In export of many frontier subjects of Federation significant volume is necessary on production of a petrochemical industry.

The significant experience of mutual economic cooperating with frontier regions of Kazakhstan accumulated in the Orenburg region, and also Pavlodar region of Kazakhstan with frontier regions of Russia. Now 18 % of the Orenburg export and more than 40 % of import have on Kazakhstan.

As a whole before Kazakhstan in mutual trade with Russia there is a series of perspective tasks, which decision will influence definitely on a common economic situation in the country.

One of the important tasks is the variation of trade balance of Kazakhstan and Russian Federation from negative in positive. Besides the gradual variation of structure commodity circulation in favorable for Republic of Kazakhstan direction is desirable.

Radiating from interests of two states, it is expedient in the nearest perspective to consider a complex of measures on hardening links of frontier regions. The necessity of creation of legal fundamentals of a development of frontier regions does not call doubts. On our sight, it is necessary to speed up development of the defining laws. Among them there are Laws About state support of a socio economic development of frontier territories of Republic of Kazakhstan, About free economic regions, About frontier trade.

Obvious presence of potential and mutually advantageous opportunities of Russia and Kazakhstan also is of use of the optimum shapes of specialization, density of the industrial and financial capital, use of effective financial instruments, architecture of optimum commodity, financial and transport streams. In this connection special urgency in a development Kazakhstan – Russia links was got with problems of a synchronization of legislative and normative basis of the countries.

Not less important the coordinated marketing strategy of Kazakhstan and Russia in the international markets is represented, where the saving and hardening of common positions is quite possible. The priority direction represents perfecting the organizational shapes of activity Kazakhstan and Russian suppliers in the world markets. They can become cartel of the agreement.

3. Cooperating in oil gas and power sphere.

The given direction of cooperating between two countries is one of perspective. The structure of the Kazakhstan export of oil on the countries in 2001 is characterized by lowering of a share of delivering in the countries of CIS (17 %) and expansion of geography of export of oil in the cities of foreign countries (83 %).

The indexes of export of petroleum in 2001 essentially have varied as contrasted to 2000. Alongside with export Kazakhstan realizes import of petroleum. And 98 % of all imported volumes of petroleum are necessary on Russian Federation.

Kazakhstan more than 50 % depends on Russia in a ratio of delivering of crude oil on refinery factory in Shimkent and Pavlodar which receive west Siberian oil on the manifold from Omsk. Pavlodar refinery factory on 100 % depends on west Siberian oil.

Its technological dependence on Russia falls into basic problems Pavlodar refinery factory: the production cycle of the enterprise is calculated for consumption west Siberian oil with the low contents of sulphur and paraffin. The perspective flagship of the Kazakhstan oil processing is complicated with its neighborhood with the Russian factories - competitors:

Omsk, Ufa, Volgograd refinery factories, they have stable access to crude oil, besides on reduced prices.

The cooperating in oil and gas branch explicates also through link of share development of the Kazakhstan deposits. Russia in the projects on natural resources users in region of Republic of Kazakhstan.

The large interest in relation to Kazakhstan is expressed with the large oil Russian company "Yokus" which has received a section for developments in Russia and region of Kazakhstan.

Since 2000 the electric power system of Kazakhstan works in a parallel condition from European Economic Community of Russia and grid system of the countries of Central Asia.

The parallel operation of electric power systems considerably has boosted quality of electrical power and reliability of electro supply of consumers of Kazakhstan, Central Asia and Russian Federation, and also has allowed operatively to realize surplus of electricity and transit of electrical power, it is more rational to use power powers of electrical stations. The electric power system of Kazakhstan and Russian Academy of Science, European Economic Comminity of Russia are called secure each other in case of crashes.

In the whole cooperating of Kazakhstan and Russia in fuel and energy sphere has noticeable perspectives.

The major factor of a development of the power market is the deepening of cooperating in the field of scientific researches and developments of advanced techniques in manufacture of power, electro technical equipment. Now all aspects of equipment for power stations are made in Russia. With disintegration of Union economic links between the manufacturers and consumers of a utilities, equipment considerably have worsened, that is negatively reflected in availability index of product of power complexes of the country. On this question it is expedient except of concrete measures at a level of Government.

4. Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications.

Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications one of the most perspective regions of a development of two-sided ratios between Kazakhstan and Russia. Both states in a context of a development of transport cooperating have a strategic value for each other, as, apart from a wide national transport web, occupy defining a geographical position.

Kazakhstan and Russia are closely coupled by the transport communications. In this connection, Kazakhstan is sensitive reacting to any variations under the tariffs for freight traffic on region of Russia.

One of key questions here - transportation of oil and gas through region of Russia. In the aggregate transportation of the Caspian oil and in the whole oil is one of the major sides of the Russia -Kazakhstan cooperating.

In a period from 1995 till 1999 Russia gave Kazakhstan such quota, which did not allow the Kazakhstan exporters to involve the algorithm manifold Atyrau – Samara on an apparent watts its annual channel capacity in 10,5 mln of tons of oil. And only in 1999 the algorithm manifold was loaded almost on 100 %. The agreement on magnifying of a quota at transit of oil in long-distance foreign countries at first up to 5 mln of tons (December 23, 1998) was signed, and then (February 25, 1999) up to 7,5 mln of tons. This decision initiated occurrence of the project of reconstruction and modernizing of the algorithm manifold Atyrau – Samara for magnifying of a channel capacity at first up to 12 mln of tons, then - up to 15 mln of tons.

This project, designed by transport companies of both countries - Russian "Transoil" and Kazakhstan "Kazakhoil", is favorable to both sides. For "Transoil" the transportation of the Kazakhstan oil on the algorithm manifolds that for complete use of their powers does not suffice 20 mln tons, brings additional profit.

For Kazakhstan the magnifying of a channel capacity of the algorithm manifold Atyrau – Samara and export of oil through Russia opens the perspective market of selling, what Europe is. On a system of oil pipelines ""Friendship" the Kazakhstan oil can act in Germany, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Czechia and Slovakia, where there is a stable demand for oil. Under the forecasts of the experts, by 2010 Central and East Europe will import about 80 mln of tons of oil to one year. Now more than half of volumes of imported oil in this region make delivering of the countries of CIS, primarily - from Russia (51 %). Having expanded outbound opportunities in this direction, Kazakhstan can become one of the largest suppliers of raw material in the European countries.

By share efforts of Kazakhstan and Russia is put into operation Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC). The common extent of the algorithm manifold makes 1 580 km, primal channel capacity 28 mln ton / year. Thus for reaching a maximum channel capacity 67 mln of tons of oil per one year it is necessary only to augment opportunities of pump stations.

During nearest of forty years CPC will be a stable source of the incomes for the shareholders, and also Russia and Kazakhstan. According to accounts, for a period of maintenance of the algorithm manifold in federal and regional budgets of Russia will arrive approximately 23,3 billion of US dollars as deductions and profit, Kazakhstan will receive approximately 8,2 billion of dollars.

The development of transport cooperating with Russian Federation is most actual for Kazakhstan's for today within the framework of architecture of regional and transcontinental transit.

Regional transit. Russian Federation is one of the basic countries of shaping and assignment of transit weights; on its share it is necessary about 26 % of shaping and 20 % of assignment of weights from total amount of all transit transportations.